Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

Factors limiting the intake of plant nutrients

Reducing the benefits of nutrients to plants, in other words, restricting the amount of nutrients available in many chemical, physical, biological soil conditions.

Know and recognize that these conditions which are particularly affected by the nutrients of these conditions, the correct use of our land, are very important in identification and implementation of measures to achieve the best product.

Factors that limit the benefits of nutrients to plants could be gathered under four groups. they are; chemical factors, physical factors, biological factors and climate factors.

Factors entered into each group separately they are given below, certain factors are capable of multiple groups reacted.

CHEMICAL FACTORS

The most important chemical factors affecting nutrient uptake soil pH id. Soil pH refers to the acidity or alkalinity of the soil. A lot of nutrients taken with regard to the optimal pH of 6.5 - 7.5 is from.

Very weak acid, intake of many nutrients and very weak in neutral pH alkalinity of expressing this is high.

Strong acids and strong alkaline conditions while reducing the intake of some nutrients.

Now let's see the most important examples of these are:

Soil pH's of the high

Or high pH soils have some important benefits of various macro and micro nutrients, decrease in the figures.

phosphorus

Calcareous soils with high pH as fixed benefits in the form of tricalcium phosphate is reduced.

Iron, Zinc, Manganese, Copper, Boron uptake `high pH soluble compounds they generate power decreases.

This is the main reason for the lack of microelements seen in calcareous soils.

Nitrogen: High pH `intake is reduced because the loss suffered if ammonia.

Potassium, Magnesium soils with high pH don`t usually much reduced, due to the antagonistic effect of calcium intake appears.

it`s high soil pH in the use of fertilizer containing these elements to address the shortcomings of the above elements, short-term positive effects are seen.

However, the added fertilizer elements are also affected by alkaline conditions in a short time and intake is reduced. Is sprayed on the leaves of the particular trace elements in these conditions, generally better results by application to the soil.

Acidic soil conditions (low soil ph't)

Low soil pH, that is, being more of acidity also has a negative effect on the intake of some nutrients.

phosphorus:

Iron and aluminum phosphate compounds that constitute the power-soluble iron and aluminum ions combine with the benefit of reduced under acid conditions.

nitrogen:

Acid conditions in the nitrification is reduced, the amount of nitrogen from organic matter mineralization reduced.

Biological pathways of nitrogen transfer to soil microorganisms in the air also decreases.

Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium Copper, zinc, decreases the amount of acid soils may be due to severe washing.

molybdenum:

The amount that can be converted into forms that can not be reduced for plants.

Iron in acidic soil conditions, increases the solubility of manganese and aluminum.

They can be toxic to plants as a result of the increase in the solubility of these elements will be said, it may also restrict intake of other nutrients.

High degree of acidity, the acidity will damage the sensitive plant root system, but also provide very limited benefit from the acidity due to fertilizer plants buried with decreasing nutrient benefits.

Therefore, a good way to improve the usefulness of the limited elements yarayışlıg acidity due to acid soils, liming is done.

It`s benefits of liming to pH and nutrients in the soil increases withdrawn to the normal range as well as improves soil physical properties.

Antagonistic effects of each nutrient:

Antagonism between nutrients, a nutrient, means no negative effect on the intake of other elements.

The soil was of a very high amount of nutrients contained an element of some other plants adversely affect the benefits is a very common situation in practice.

For example, lime inevitably resulting iron deficiency in susceptible plants grown in soil with high iron deficiency constitutes a good example.

Likewise, caused by excess calcium potassium and magnesium deficiency, zinc deficiency caused by excess phosphorus are antagonistic interaction common practice.

The low cation retention capacity of the soil:

Especially poor sandy soil cation exchange capacity of humus is very low.

Cation holding capacity in these soils with low nutrient cations, easily washable because they keep the soil in a good way.

Therefore, the cation can be of low nutrient holding capacity amounts will result in the reduction process, eventually eating disorders seen in the plants grown on this land.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOIL

The uptake of nutrients by limiting soil physical properties may lead to malnutrition.

For example, is the result of continuous processing of soil at the same depth, and called the name of the plow layer of the soil base is quite hard, because they reduce the intake of foods of plant roots from reaching the lower soil layers.

Likewise, poor soil structure, plant roots gene prevents enough to benefit from the nutrients in the plant is not in contact with the soil prevents soil cutting.

Processes in agricultural soils have poor physical properties, often stem from incorrect forest management practices.

Structure and deterioration of soil compaction (compaction) of the ignorant made ​​entirely tillage and chemical fertilization still occurs, depending on the applied ignorance.

Excessive irrigation also cause nutritional deficiencies in plants by preventing soil aeration.

Whether due to soil compaction or jeans get due to the formation of structure due t Or, get more water, lack of oxygen prevents nutrient uptake of plants in the soil and creates eating disorders.

Wetness and stuffiness of some nutrients while increasing the resolution may lead to toxicity.

The best example is the level of manganese in the plant increased the solubility of manganese rise to toxic levels in the remaining land under water.

Growth hormone of oxygen in the soil some process plant processes are also inhibits the growth of the plant to cause reduction.

The inundation two days lands where in half of the cytokinin levels in the HE plants, four days in inundation was reduced to a level three of these hormones and if it was determined that accordingly height of the plant is reduced and chlorosis occurs.

BIOLOGICAL FACTORS

Plant nutrients for the plant of which complicate or hinder, so malnutrition in plants has also seen a number of biological factors that cause.

The most important of these, the diseases caused by plant viruses, fungi, microorganisms harmful effects of harmful processes such as bacteria and plants.

Plant diseases and their harmful and processes of the plant with effect leaves and that other organs in the common color and shape defects similar processes of plant nutrients to the symptoms resulting from the deficiency and should be considered for the mixing of these two groups of symptoms, plant nutrition and plant protection are located all along the book on H.

In fact, these two groups of symptoms often resemble each other is because both are based on the same reasons which reason can not adequately fed plant.

Because the effects of plant nutrients are ineffective in absorption of plant diseases and pests.

In plant diseases and pests, damaging the root (eg nematodes) that damage to the body ground level, they do worst effect on plant absorption of nutrients.

Other biological factors that cause nutrient deficiency in plants include plants for soil nutrients in competition with other living creatures and the lack of earthworms also considered important.

Nutrients that compete with crops for soil organisms, rather, is weed-e microorganisms.

Use of nutrients in the soil for their needs, these creatures can cause deficiency for crop plants.

This is important for the case of nitrogen, although for all nutrients.

Soil microorganisms, especially the C / N ratio of the organic material in delivering large fresh soil, they enter into competition with large plant available nitrogen in nitrogen Kin meet the needs of the soil.

After administration of unburned soil manure in the relevant part of the losses of crops seen for this reason.

Earthworms play an important role in improving the soil structure.

The development of soil structure makes it easier to reach the plant roots soil nutrient Therefore, the small number of worms, and decrease food intake causes the reduction process of structural development.

To increase the worm population is to give our best soil manure.

CLIMATE FACTORS

Climatic factors affecting nutrient intake of precipitation, temperature they are the ones highlighted.

Therefore the amount of water in the soil is reduced possibility of insufficient precipitation occurred in areas without adequate irrigation.

The reduction in soil water content to food intake is reduced to decrease the solubility of the nutrients. Indeed, following the drought in practice, there is an deficiency of various nutrients in many plants.

Water deficiency also leads indirectly to nutritional deficiencies because they undermine the development of the plant root system.

On the other hand, rainfall for the loss caused by washing of many nutrients, nutrient deficiency leads to shrinkage of the plants.

The creation of malnutrition rainfall Another reason is that the anoxic conditions occurring in the soil due to excessive rainfall is blocking the reception of certain nutrients.

The low temperature of the air and soil creates problems in plant nutrition.

Low temperatures slow down physiological processes in the plant nutrients that plants decreases the absorption of taraaf.

The low soil temperature soil organic need, as well as the fraction of mineral nutrient mineralization with slow or stop the acquisition.

Low soil temperatures also reduce food intake and cause for the decline in cases of root development.