Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

Pistachio Nutrition Care, Disease, Pests, Nutrient Deficiency and Plant Nutritiontion

Pistachio cultivation care nutrient deficiency diseases and plant pests feed

Pistachio trees bloom in the first half of April.

The low temperatures that may occur during this period cause small fruit breakdown of the trees at a later stage.

Pistachio nuts require high temperature with a long vegetation period for plant growth, full fruit filling and ripening.

In years and regions where the sum of the temperature is insufficient, the fruits cannot fill them completely, the rate of cracking and the range of cracking are low and the outer shell is difficult to separate from the hard shell.

Pistachio can grow economically in long, hot, dry and relatively cold winters in summers.

For the development and ripening of the fruit during the summer months, high temperatures are required for a long time and in the winter months, low temperatures are required for a certain period of time.

Zinc deficiency

In areas where winter temperatures are likely to fall to -15 degrees and more, fruit eyes are damaged.

The cool and rainy weather that lasts for a long time during the flowering period adversely affects the spread of flower dust of male trees.

Pistachio likes relatively deep, filtered, loamy and partly calcareous soils.

It is a kind of fruit that can grow in arid conditions in character.

For the pistachio cultivation, it is drawn as transverse and longitudinal if the planting range is given to the land.

Where the lines intersect each other are the points where the pits will open.

The distance between the row and the row should be 10-12 meters in the barren places and 8-10 meters in the base areas.

In pistachio cultivation, it is important for the pits to be opened to be wide and deep and for the development of root parts. The most suitable seedling pit sizes are 50 x 50 x 50 cm. must be the size.

As the bottom and edges of the pits opened with auger connected to the tractor shaft are hardened, these parts must be softened in order to develop seedling roots.

PLANT NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES, SYMPTOMS, REMOVAL AND FERTILIZATION IN NUT GROWING

Pistachio cultivation of plants in nutrient deficiency, symptoms, removal, fertilization

Potassium deficiency

In case of deficiency, please use one of our products or search for the following.

To avoid deficiencies, use regularly as the first leaves are up to the sparrow beak.

ZINC DEFICIENCY IN pistachio nuts

Pistachio of zinc deficiency

A typical symptom of zinc deficiency in pistachio is shrunken, shrunken leaves and rosette formation.

The reason for this measurement is that the lengths of the nodes are considerably shortened.

Leaf edges sometimes become wavy.

Yellow leaf mosaic stains occur between the veins, with the vascular edges of the leaf surface remaining green. Zinc deficiency

If deficiency is not too severe only affects the leaves, shoot development continues normally.

However, if deficiency is severe, shoot development stops completely.

The number of fruit buds in shoots decreases or disappears completely.

Nitrogen deficiency

In pistachio, the symptoms of potassium deficiency are usually seen first on the old leaves.

Because, in case of deficiency, newly formed young leaves are supplemented with potassium from old leaves.

Deficiency symptoms first appear on the edges and ends of many plants.

Leaf edges first turn yellow, then the color turns dark brown in these parts.

POTASSIUM DEFICIENCY IN pistachio nuts

Pistachio potassium deficiency

If the deficiency of potassium in pistachio is very severe, these parts turn black and die; dry.

At the end of the old leaves are seen as dirty brown necrotic spots.

In particular, the deficiency symptoms typical of fruit trees, although the edges of the leaves change color and die as described, the remainder of the leaf can maintain its normal green color and appearance for a long time.

Nitrogen Deficiency in Pistachio Nuts Potassium deficiency

Phosphorus deficiency

Pistachio nitrogen deficiency inn

At the beginning of nitrogen deficiency in pistachios, the leaves get a light red color and they are completely covered in the advanced stage and are shed early. 

Deficiency symptoms begin primarily on old leaves, shoots shorten and leaves shrink.

Pistachio boron deficiency

As the boron deficiency in pistachio primarily damages the growth points of the plants, the growth in the plants is very slow.

Leaves and branches easily break, take a crisp structure.

If the deficiency is too severe, growth points die and growth stops completely.

NİTROGEN DEFICIENCY

Flower is prevented from fruit formation, leaves curl, thicken and dark blue-green color.

PHOSPHOROUS DEFICIENCY IN pistachio nuts

Pistachio phosphorus deficiency in

Boron deficiency

The lack of phosphorus in pistachios slows the growth of the tree.

Leaf Syst emi dark purple-looking, leaf stalks and young shoots are purple. In older leaves, it becomes tanned and shed early.

It can dry the leaf completely in later stages in the form of light browning on the ends and middle parts of the old leaf in the form of stains.

Phosphorus in soil is in the form that a very large partial plants can not benefit.

In order for the plants to benefit from phosphorus found in both inorganic and organic phosphorus compounds, they need to be broken down and transformed into phosphorus anions.

Phosphate anions in free form can easily be utilized by plants, but it is difficult for phosphate soils to remain free in most soils.

Even the majority of the phosphorus given by fertilizers can rapidly turn into forms that plants cannot benefit from.

It is difficult for plants to benefit from phosphorus especially in calcareous and high pH soils.

For the formation of pistachio fruit, the plant needs to be fed sufficiently.

As it is known, irregular fruiting (periodicity) and shortage of products in pistachios are among the most important problems encountered in aquaculture.

As a result of insufficient and balanced nutrition of the plant, problems such as incomplete plant development, low yield and poor quality are encountered.

There are many studies indicating that periodicity (irregular yield) seen in pistachio is related to plant nutrition.

Pistachio grown in poor, barren and dehydrated areas by nutrients must be fertilized.

Fertilization to be carried out in time and in accordance with the technique contributes greatly to the development of pistachio, increases yield and reduces periodicity.

In fertilization, soil and leaf analysis is essential. Accordingly, deficiencies should be eliminated.

There are many studies indicating that periodicity (irregular yield) observed in pistachio cultivation is related to plant nutrition.

It is obligatory to fertilize the pistachio which grows in poor, barren and dehydrated lands by nutrients.

Pistachio Growing In January, as deep as possible (25 cm) to the tree to be opened to the crown trail, or especially in plantations, the tree will be opened to the edge of the crown trail of phosphorus fertilizer application should be made.

Taking into account the age of the tree and the structure of the soil, 1-3 kg triple super phosphate fertilizer can be given per tree.

The soils of the region where pistachios grow are mostly calcareous.

Therefore, nitrogenous acid character fertilizers should be used.

Taking into account the age of the tree and the characteristics of the soil in February, between 2-5 kg, ammonium sulphate fertilizer should be given to the crown projection, rake or hoe should be mixed well with the soil.

According to soil and leaf analysis to be done in pistachio cultivation, in gardens where deficiency is seen, 0.5-1.5 kg potassium sulfate should be given per tree with phosphorus application.

Fertilization to be performed on time and in accordance with the technique contributes greatly to the development of pistachio nuts, increases yield and reduces periodicity.

Important note:

Always use Wet spreader glue if your irrigation or spray water has a pH of 8 - 8.5 every time you spray your garden. (Soil and water pH in many regions of our country is up to 8- 8.5 or even up to 9.) All drugs produced are produced according to the pH range of 6-7. Even the best quality medicines lose their effect by up to 30%, from 6 to 15 minutes. Buddha will reduce the effect of your medicine.

For this reason, our advice to your holder, tank or back pump,

TANK RANKING (DO NOT BREAK THE RANKING)

1 PH DECREASING ADHESIVE  It reduces the pH of the spraying water and prevents the deterioration of the drug. Once the medicines are applied to the plant, it allows the drug to spread to the leaf and prevents it from flowing through the leaves.
2 PLANT FOOD Provides smooth and balanced nutrition of the plant. It makes the fruits attractive, bright, colorful, large, durable, hard, heavy, tasty and pleasantly fragrant.
3 INSECTICIDES Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, according to the pest period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
4 FUNGUSİT MUSHROOM (After mixing in a separate containerZarar) Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, depending on the disease period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
5 OTHER Other trace elements recommended by technical staff.  

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

LIME SOLVENT It should be used in calcareous soils at the beginning of the season. Lime wrapped around capillary roots destroys the creamy layer. Soil bound iron, phosphorus and phosphates are released in the soil, the plant uses them. you do not need to use iron and phosphorus fertilizers repeatedly. 1 Kg drip irrigation per hectare
PLANT FOOD First application before flowering,
second application in fruit attitude,
The third application is done 45 days before harvest
Two applications with 300 gr / 100 lt water in all periods required.
200-300 cc
ZINC Apply when eyes explode and flowering is over. The most important time to apply the fruit is collected (before the leaves fall yet) configure. It allows the accumulation of zinc in the eyes of next spring and healthy new shoots. 125-150 cc
DRIP IRRIGATION NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, BALANCED, POTASSIUM It should be used regularly every semester. NPK of the plant must be met 2-3 kg
ORGANIC Organic based drip irrigation and release irrigation fertilizer. Fifteen days apart. One empty, one full watering or split quantities full watering Dönüme
5-7 kg

SEWING

The wounded parts of the lumps are cut and a light root toilet is made.

3 kg of burnt farm manure per well is mixed with 200 grams of P205 topsoil and placed in the bottom of the well. Farm manure must definitely be burned.

In planting, the part of the sediment on the soil should be whatever the level of dismantling. Immediately after planting can be given water.

Pile root should not be cut when planting the lumps. Planting should be done in autumn in hard winter regions, and in spring in very snowy and frosty winter regions.

PİSTACHİO DİSEASES AND PESTS

Agonoscena spp.
Hom: Psyllidae
Kermania pistacella Ams Lep.: Tineidae
 Thaumetoop solitaria Frey. Lep: Taumetopoei
Schneidereria Recurvaria pistaciicola Danil.
Megastigmus pistaciae Walk. Hymn: Torymidae
 Hylesinus vestitus MM R Col.: Scolytidae
 Psylla

alni
.
Schneidere Recurvaria pistaciicola Danil.
Capnodis
.
tenebrionis
.
Alternaria
.
alternata
.
Septoria
pistacina
Allesh
.

Pistachio Breeding, FIRST YEAR CARE IN NEW FACILITIES

Pistachios are generally grown in barren areas. Therefore, the uptake and preservation of nutrients in the soil is only possible by cultivating a good soil.

After the rains have been cut following the planting of the flora, contour versions are made in the spring and autumn, hoeing around the flora.

In April, May, the temperature of the precipitates should be made before the house increases.

In dry and irrigated places, it is necessary to keep the planks in place, to create a humid cool environment around them and also to make fresh shoots in spring to protect the sun from burning.

The sticks are made with a piece of stone or wood.

If the stones are not covered with soil, the stones heated by the heat of the sun have a negative effect on the development of precipitation.

Two ways can be done

First;

three directions and above closed, only the north direction is open.

In these, the northern side is closed in winter, the south side is opened and winter cold is prevented from being damaged.

Latter;

are four-way closed only open top inverted funnel.

This form of the house is generally made in Şanlıurfa region.

In the regions where the summer months are very hot, homeless depressions are unthinkable.

Otherwise, the temperatures in July and August dry the sediments.

In autumn, the branches that are dried before the foliage are removed, unwanted fresh shoots from the trunk and bottom parts are cut without leaving nails.

SECOND YEAR MAINTENANCE IN Pistachio Breeding:

Maintenance works performed in the first year are performed again.

In spring, new ones are planted in place of non-retaining sediments.

The residues of the retaining depressions are removed in the autumn of the second year. Re-sewn collapses are made again.

THIRD YEAR MAINTENANCE IN Pistachio Breeding:

Maintenance works performed in the first and second years are repeated exactly.

Vaccines should be given when the stumps take the thickness of the thumb.

This period is 3-4 years after the planting of annual sediments.

Pruning in pistachio growing

As pistachios are resinous, in principle, thick branches should not be cut in pruning.

Drying can occur in resin flowing areas.

While the tree is in the seedling period, the pruning is done by leaving three or four and sometimes two main branches.

Pruning pistachio trees; After pruning in the sapling period, young trees should be extracted from dry branches, dilution of branches frequently developed against each other, and cuttings should not be too deep to encourage the formation of new shoots in very old trees.

Dry branch picking can be entered immediately after harvest with dry wet parts.

It is very important to extract dry branches in pistachios.

It must be done and no dry branches should be left on the tree. Otherwise, dry branches are insect beds.

The most important point to be considered in pruning is that pruning is done without leaving a nail.

IRRIGATION IN Pistachio Cultivation

The annual water requirement of pistachio in yield age with precipitation is 620-760 mm. between.

At the end of June-August, 20-day irrigation in addition to the rainfall that year, increases the development of pistachio pistachio is effective in partially preventing periodicity.

FERTILIZATION AND ARTIFICIAL POWDERING IN Pistachio Growing

Fertilization Pistachio is also the most important event in aquaculture.

This is directly related to the formation of fruit. Although there are many reasons for insemination, the most important reason is insufficiency of pollen.

Pistachio orchards are often seen in flower and small fruit dumps and our producers are frustrated.

In pistachio cultivation, the ends of flower bunches to be poured are first curled and then poured. A normal pistachio inflorescence has an average of 120 flowers.

If 20 of them bind fruit, this corresponds to a moderate yield.

If 40 fruits are formed in clusters, this means a very high yield.

However, in the fruit branches showing the cluster cluster (bay) 1 to 6 fruits remain.

The most important reason for all of this is that our producers do not plant male trees in their gardens.

Pistachio cultivation should generally be calculated on 10 female trees and 1 male tree.

Since male trees do not produce crops, our producers do not use them in their gardens, They provide.

If the producers look at the male trees in their gardens with a view of gain rather than loss, there will be no flower and fruit dumps described above.

Otherwise, these castings are inevitable in each product year.

The number of male trees in pistachio orchards is usually 1-2%. This ratio must be increased to 8-10%.

Since the event is all about pollination and fertilization, producers who do not have enough male trees in their garden should make up for this deficiency.

Deficiency can be eliminated by making artificial pollination to pistachio orchards.

For this, flower powders must first be collected. For producers who do not collect flower powders, flower powder sales are made at Pistachio Research Institute.

1 teaspoon ((1 g) of flower powder is sufficient for each tree. Flower powders should be mixed with 1 cup of flour for each tree.

What is important here is that the female flowers are of acceptable maturity.

The prepared flower powder and wheat flour mixture can be applied to female trees either with cheesecloth bags or motorized back atomizer.

It is best to use cheesecloth bags for artificial dusting in small gardens and motorized dust throwers for large gardens