Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

PEAR GROWING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Pear breeding pests, nutrient deficiency disease care and feeding of plants

Pears generally need to cool down below 7 ° C for 1000 - 2300 hours.

This type is the highest quality in many varieties, fruits become hot and dry places in summers.

It appears that the pear requires an average temperature higher than the apple.

For this reason, pear cultivation is grown more economically than apples in regions where Mediterranean climate prevails.

Pear is a moderate climate tree.

Because it is less resistant to cold than apples, it cannot go higher than 55 latitude in the northern hemisphere.

In terms of height, apples are not found in places where too high.

The pear tree can withstand temperatures of - 25 to - 30 ° C, but in long-term severe cold, especially on soils with moisture, the shoot ends in the trees.

Pear flowers - 2.2 ° C, small fruits zarar1.1 ° C is damaged by frost.

PLANT FOOD DEFICIENCIES, SYMPTOMS, REMOVAL AND FERTILIZATION IN PEAR GROWING

Pear cultivation of plants in nutrient deficiency, symptoms, removal, fertilization

In case of deficiency, please use one of our products or search for the following.

To avoid deficiencies, use regularly as the first leaves are up to the sparrow beak.

ZINC DEFICIENCY IN PEAR GROWING.

Zinc deficiency in pear cultivation

A typical symptom of zinc deficiency in pears is the formation of shrunken, shrunken leaves and rosettes.

The reason for this measurement is that the lengths of the nodes are considerably shortened. Leaf edges sometimes become wavy.

Yellow leaf mosaic stains occur between the veins, with the vascular edges of the leaf surface remaining green.

If deficiency is not too severe only affects the leaves, shoot development continues normally.

However, if deficiency is severe, shoot development stops completely.

The number of fruit buds in shoots decreases or disappears completely.

Blackening is seen in the fruit meats of stone fruits.

POTASSIUM DEFICIENCY IN PEAR GROWING

Potassium deficiency in pear cultivation

Pear If the potassium deficiency is too severe, these parts turn black and die; dry.

In particular, the deficiency symptoms typical of fruit trees, although the edges of the leaves change color and die as described, the remainder of the leaf can maintain its normal green color and appearance for a long time.

Nitrogen Deficiency in Pear Growing

Nitrogen deficiency in pear cultivation

Symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in pears, leaves are small, narrow, light green color.

Old leaves can be yellowish orange colored or reddish purple colored and shed early 

Leaf stems appear to form a narrow angle to the branch, are thin and short, and if the deficiency is very severe, the stems die.

Shoot development is weak.

The number of buds and flowers is low and the fertilization time of the flowers is short.

Fruits are colored before ripening. BORON DEFICIENCY IN PEAR GROWING

Boron deficiency in pear cultivation

In pears boron deficiency, the flowers suddenly fade as if they were damaged by the cold and black brown color.

But they do not fall as they stand on the branch for a while.

Although frost damages create the same appearance, flowers affected by frost are immediately shed.

In case of severe deficiency, leaf output is delayed.

Vegetative growth points die, shoots become short, leaves are small and distorted shape.

However, chlorosis is not seen in the leaves.

Apple and pear fruits suffer from major deformations and fungus inside and outside.

Fruits are smaller than normal and sometimes crack.

External fungus caused by boron deficiency should not be confused with bitter speckle disease caused by calcium deficiency.

Bitter spots appear on the branch either too late, or more often after harvest, during storage.

IRON DEFICIENCY IN PEAR GROWING

 Iron deficiency in pear cultivation

Pear in iron deficiency is the symptom that is called chlorosis or jaundice.

Araz shows itself mostly on chalky and nutrient - poor soils.

The land intensifies especially during rainy seasons.

In cases where chlorosis is caused by iron deficiency, the leaf veins are green, whereas the inter-vein tissue is yellow.

The symptom starts on young leaves and progresses to old leaves.

At the edges of such leaves, reddish or brown drying occurs over time.

Due to the disruption of photosynthesis, the development slows down, yield decreases and as a result the tree may die.

Chlorose is caused by the excess lime taken into the plant and the free iron contained in the plant.

Iron, which acts as a catalyst in the formation of chlorophyll, cannot perform this task when held by lime.

Iron retention is not only within the plant.

Iron II compounds in extremely calcareous soils.

It turns into iron III compounds and binds to the soil and cannot be taken up by the plant.

MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY IN PEAR GROWING

Magnesium deficiency in pear cultivation

In pears, magnesium deficiency leaves necroses around the main vein and near the edges, while the edges of the leaves retain their green color.

The emergence of these symptoms occurs towards the end of the season.

Early shedding of leaves is also seen.

In the absence of potassium in the pear, the leaves become yellowish green and typically show curl.

Necrosis occurs at the edges of the leaves, which is a typical symptom of potash deficiency.

PHOSPHOROUS DEFICIENCY IN PEAR GROWING

Phosphorus deficiency in pear cultivation

Lack of phosphorus in pears slows the growth of the tree.

Leaf system is dark green-looking, leaf stalks and young shoots are purple in color.

Old leaves tan and shed early.

In pears, phosphorus deficiency leaves are small, dark green color, bronze or purple stained.

Leaf stems are reddish in color and they stand upright so that their connections with the branch are narrow.

It has a sparse leaf system.

Dark brown necrosis occurs on the edges of old leaves. Early foliage is seen.

The number of flowers and fruits is low. Fruits remain small and shed before ripening.

Fruits are dull, dull in color, hard and have a frequent texture and are tasteless.

If the amount of phosphorus is excessive compared to nitrogen, the fruit flesh is still coarse-textured.

MANGANESE DEFICIENCY IN PEAR GROWING

Manganese deficiency in pear cultivation

Symptoms of manganese deficiency in pears are similar to each other.

In light and moderate deficiencies, young leaves exhibit slight discoloration between the veins, and this discoloration is relatively mild, but is visible when the leaf is exposed to light.

If the deficiency is more severe, the discoloration increases and leaves the web appearance.

In the later stage, to cover the surface of the leaf whitish yellow spots.

CALCIUM DEFICIENCY IN PEAR GROWING

Calcium deficiency in pear cultivation

Calcium deficiency in pears occurs mostly in fruits.

In leaves, symptoms of deficiency are rarely seen.

In trees with high calcium deficiency; upward curling of the youngest shoot leaves, the formation of chlorosis in the veins and between the arteries, the advanced stages of the leaf edges, such as the formation of yellow-brown necrosis symptoms are observed.

Symptoms of deficiency in the fruit are much more pronounced.

Abnormal crust is manifested by tanning, darkening of the lentisels towards the harvest, and sometimes severe fruit cracking during harvest.

However, the most important symptom of calcium deficiency in the fruit is K Acibenek..

Bitter speck, which occurs during storage near or after harvest in pears; is a physiological disorder characterized by brown-black spots forming deformation on the shell.

In addition to calcium deficiency; There are many physiological disorders such as blackening, bitter spots, internal watering, low temperature damage and aging disorders.

Soil usually contains enough calcium to meet plant needs.

Because no washing particularly arid and semi-arid soil regions such as Turkey, more saturation rate is high.

Calcium is the primary element in the soil.

Calcium in the arid soil formed on the main material of some other nutrients,

in particular, it may be present in such a way as to have an antagonistic effect on the uptake of microelements.

As Turkey's lands also move these properties, so there is no need to be fertilizing the soil with calcium.

However, it is possible to use calcium compounds for calcification in acidic places.

Important note:

Always use Wet spreader glue if your irrigation or spray water has a pH of 8 - 8.5 every time you spray your garden. (Soil and water pH in many regions of our country is up to 8- 8.5 or even up to 9.) All drugs produced are produced according to the pH range of 6-7. Even the best quality medicines lose their effect by up to 30%, from 6 to 15 minutes. Buddha will reduce the effect of your medicine.

For this reason, our advice to your holder, tank or back pump,

TANK RANKING (DO NOT BREAK THE RANKING)

1 PH DECREASING ADHESIVE  It reduces the pH of the spraying water and prevents the deterioration of the drug. Once the medicines are applied to the plant, it allows the drug to spread to the leaf and prevents it from flowing through the leaves.
2 PLANT FOOD Provides smooth and balanced nutrition of the plant. It makes the fruits attractive, bright, colorful, large, durable, hard, heavy, tasty and pleasantly fragrant.
3 INSECTICIDES Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, according to the pest period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
4 FUNGUSİT MUSHROOM (After mixing in a separate container) Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, depending on the disease period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
5 OTHER Other trace elements recommended by technical staff.  

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

LIME SOLVENT It should be used in calcareous soils at the beginning of the season. Lime wrapped around capillary roots destroys the creamy layer. Soil bound iron, phosphorus and phosphates are released in the soil, the plant uses them. you do not need to use iron and phosphorus fertilizers repeatedly. 1 Kg drip irrigation per hectare
PLANT FOOD First application before flowering,
second application in fruit attitude,
The third application is done 45 days before harvest
Two applications with 300 gr / 100 lt water in all periods required.
200-300 cc
ZINC Apply when eyes explode and flowering is over. The most important time to apply the fruit is collected (before the leaves fall yet) configure. It allows the accumulation of zinc in the eyes of next spring and healthy new shoots. 125-150 cc
DRIP IRRIGATION NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, BALANCED, POTASSIUM It should be used regularly every semester. NPK of the plant must be met 2-3 kg
ORGANIC Organic based drip irrigation and release irrigation fertilizer. Fifteen days apart. One empty, one full watering or split quantities full watering Dönüme
5-7 kg

Foliar fertilizer should be used in every application. Leaf fertilizers prevent plants from getting stressed. It meets the micro element needs of plants. Improves fruit set and quality of fruits.

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

Pears generally react more against nitrogen than apples, and nitrogen fertilization can be carried out without any deterioration in the quality of the fruit. However, the most important consideration in nitrogen fertilization is fire blight. Because excessive shoot growth greatly increases the effectiveness of this disease. The need for nitrogen is also higher in gardens under permanent green cover. In general, a nitrogen fertilization can be performed with the calculation of 250 - 500 gr / tree pure nitrogen.

PEARS DİSEASES AND PESTS

Rosellinia necatrix
Armillaria mellea
Venturia pirina
Armutta geriye ölüm
Armut Alternarya
monilya
.
Ayva monilyası
Diplocarpon mespili)
elma klorotik yaprak leke v
Armutta memeli pas
elma
kullemesi
kok
kanseri
Erwinia amylovora
Cydia pomonella)
Panonychus ulmi
Epicometis hirta
Parthenoleca- nium corni
İki kabarcıklı koşnil
Toprak altı zararlılar
Hoplocampa spp.
Aphis
pomi
Archips rosanus
Cydia molesta
Phyllonorycter gerasimowi
Cossus cossus
Zeuzera pyrina
Euproctis chrysorrhoea
Hyphantria cunea
Stephanitis pyri
Epidiaspis leperii
Cacopsylla pyri
Eriophyes pyri
Scolytus rugulosus
Lepidosaphes ulmi
Malacosoma neustria
Spilonota ocellana

 

IRRIGATION

Watering is done from May to the end of September.

Irrigation interval varies from 10-20 days to 5-7 days depending on the desire of the plant, soil structure, weak or strong rootstock, rainfall and temperature

SOIL REQUIREMENTS OF PEAR GROWING

Pears are not very selective in terms of soil.

However, the deeper the soil, the more permeable, warm and rich in nutrients, the better the trees grow and the higher the yield.

In pear cultivation, the best soils should be deep, hot, well drained loamy soils to obtain high yields and high quality fruits.

For pear cultivation, a soil profile at depths of 46 - 63 cm is sufficient, but in slightly less deep soils the substrate must allow root development so that the roots can provide moisture from the lower parts.

In pear cultivation, the most important soils to be avoided when setting up a garden are calcareous soils, strong alkaline soils or soils with a high proportion of lime water towards the lower soil layers, where pears grafted on the quince are severely damaged by iron deficiency.

Pears love the high amount of organic matter in the soil.

In this respect, it is necessary to supplement weak soils with farm manure.

GARDEN PLANT IN PEAR GROWING

Pear orchards are established either by grafted seedlings or by cultivating sludge under arid conditions.

It is best to take advantage of old well-branched saplings when setting up a garden in pear cultivation.

Because, well-branched seedlings in the nursery during the early fruit lies.

The distance and spacing between the trees in pear cultivation vary according to ecological conditions and rootstock to be used.

When used as quince rootstock in humid areas, 3 - 4 m, 4 - 6 m for medium sized trees and 8 - 12 m spacing and distance in pear decay are sufficient.

In the barren, these distances are kept wider on ahlat rootstock

Modified - Leader system of dressing shape is good for pears. The situation is the same as in the apple.

Due to the fire blight seen in pears, the probability of dying in the branches will be calculated and 4 - 6 main roof branches will be developed.

For this, it is better if the seedlings purchased in pears are 120 - 140 cm in length instead of 90 - 120 cm.

  Pruning in pear cultivation should be very light as in apples.

Branches and branches should be removed to apply a light pruning to the trees lying on the crop and to ensure widespread development.

Pear varieties are divided into two groups in terms of yield

1 - Short fruit plunge varieties, Beurre Hardy, B. Bosc, Beurre Clairgeau, Lawson and Flemish, the new development always takes place in new cuts,

<2 - Strong fruit plungers and shoots in the group Williams (Bartlett), Eastar Beurre, Winter Nelis and Patrick Barry varieties.

The first group of varieties, a large amount of flower to form a moderate degree of pruning is required.

It is also recommended for dilution in branch and fruit droplets by abbreviation. In the second group, a very light pruning is necessary to make varieties.

In pear cultivation, trees should be controlled both in winter and in growing season and should be caught while the fire is in sleep period.

For this, it is sufficient to look at the top of the tree developments.

In smeared shoots, the leaves are easily recognized as they remain during the winter season. H

As soon as asthma is seen, immediately cutting off the diseased part prevents the removal of many branches in the future as well as braking the disease.

Dilution in Pear Cultivation

Bartlett, B. Hardy, B.Bosc varieties such as 3 to 5 fruits in each beam sometimes connects the fruit, which should reduce the number of them to 1 -2.

However, the product load on the tree is taken into consideration in the dilution if the fruit set on the tree is not high dilution is not necessary to beams.

Manual dilution in pears can be done up to 50 - 70 after flowering

FRUIT WORKS

In a tree, my skin should be repeated at least three times. In determining the maturity of the skin, here also the base color of the fruit peel, the separation of the fruit from the branch, the hardness of the fruit flesh and the time from full flower to maturity are taken into consideration.

Pears according to export standards Extra, First class and Second class is divided into three quality classes.

Fruits must have minimum requirements in all three quality classes.

Accordingly, the fruits should be full and intact, there should be no visible remnants on them, they should not be wet and they should not have foreign taste and odor.

The tolerances related to these classes are given in the related standard of TSE.