Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

SUNFLOWER CULTIVATION Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Although sunflower is not very selective in terms of soil type, it has high yield potential in organic soils, deep and good water holding capacity. It can be cultivated in all kinds of well-drained soils from sandy soils to heavy clay soils.

Sunflower has little tolerance to salinity. Decreases were observed in the percentage oil of sunflower seeds grown in salty soils.

In addition, it was determined that the concentration of salt to be found at 1-2% in the soil to be grown in sunflowers significantly reduced germination.

Sunflower grows best in soils with acidity (pH) of 6.0 to 7.2. Sunflower is highly tolerant to high and low temperatures depending on the period of development. The soil temperature of 8-10 ° C is required for the best germination of the seeds. Sunflower plant seedlings can withstand temperatures of -4 ° C in the cotyledon circuit. The best growing temperatures for sunflowers are between 21 and 24 ° C. It usually requires cool weather in vegetative period and clear and sunny weather in generative period.

Since the sunflower plant has a pile root structure, it is very tolerant to drought compared to other field crops.

During the growing process, about 450 mm of water, which will be provided by rainfall or given to the soil by irrigation, is sufficient to get the best yield.

Due to the heliotropic properties of sunflower leaves, it can easily take the light needed for photosynthesis.

Important note:

Always use Wet spreader glue if your irrigation or spray water has a pH of 8 - 8.5 every time you spray your garden. (Soil and water pH in many regions of our country is up to 8- 8.5 or even up to 9.) All drugs produced are produced according to the pH range of 6-7.

Even the best quality medicines lose their effect by up to 30%, from 6 to 15 minutes. Buddha will reduce the effect of your medicine.

For this reason, our advice to your holder, tank or back pump,

TANK RANKING (DO NOT BREAK THE RANKING)

1 PH DECREASING ADHESIVE  It reduces the pH of the spraying water and prevents the deterioration of the drug. Once the medicines are applied to the plant, it allows the drug to spread to the leaf and prevents it from flowing through the leaves.
2 PLANT FOOD Provides smooth and balanced nutrition of the plant. It makes the fruits attractive, bright, colorful, large, durable, hard, heavy, tasty and pleasantly fragrant.
3 INSECTICIDES Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, according to the pest period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
4 FUNGUSİT MUSHROOM (After mixing in a separate container) Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, depending on the disease period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
5 OTHER Other trace elements recommended by technical staff.  

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

LIME SOLVENT It should be used in calcareous soils at the beginning of the season. Lime wrapped around capillary roots destroys the creamy layer. Soil bound iron, phosphorus and phosphates are released in the soil, the plant uses them. you do not need to use iron and phosphorus fertilizers repeatedly. 1 Kg drip irrigation per hectare
PLANT FOOD First application before flowering,
second application in fruit attitude,
The third application is done 45 days before harvest
Two applications with 300 gr / 100 lt water in all periods required.
200-300 cc
ZINC Apply when eyes explode and flowering is over. The most important time to apply the fruit is collected (before the leaves fall yet) configure. It allows the accumulation of zinc in the eyes of next spring and healthy new shoots. 125-150 cc
DRIP IRRIGATION NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, BALANCED, POTASSIUM It should be used regularly every semester. NPK of the plant must be met 2-3 kg
ORGANIC Organic based drip irrigation and release irrigation fertilizer. Fifteen days apart. One empty, one full watering or split quantities full watering Dönüme
5-7 kg

Foliar fertilizer should be used in every application. Leaf fertilizers prevent plants from getting stressed. It meets the micro element needs of plants. Improves fruit set and quality of fruits.

Due to this characteristic, sunflower is called “sunflower” or “sunflower inde in Thrace and Marmara Region. Sunflower is one of the most important oil crops in the world and in Turkey, which is usually grown for oil in Turkey. More than 70% of the plantation is in the Thrace and Marmara regions.

Sunflower requires a total temperature of 2600-2850 ° C during the growing period (100-150 days). Due to its deep and pile root system, it is more resistant to drought. Although it grows in all kinds of soil, well-drained, neutral PH (6.5 - 7.5) and water retention is more likes soils. It does not like acidic soils with high ground water. It is resistant to salinity. For sunflower germination the minimum soil temperature should be 8-10 ° C. For this reason, it is generally cultivated between early April and mid-May.

Early sowing significantly increases yield. Sunflowers are cold-resistant, usually from the first frost 4-6-leaf circuit is not damaged. However, when the temperature falls below -4 ° C, it is highly affected by frost. For optimum yield, 7-8 kg. pure nitrogen and the same amount of phosphorus are sufficient. However, it is necessary to increase these amounts in aqueous conditions. It is very important to apply fertilizer after the soil analysis is done and the nutrient content of the field is specified. If there is enough phosphorus in the soil, 7-8 kg. 15-16 kg containing pure nitrogen. urea (46% N) or 25-30 kg.

Ammonium Nitrate (26% N) fertilizer is mixed by sprinkling and then sowing. Fertilizer containing this nutrient is not recommended, because it is usually rich in potassium in the soil. However, if the nutrient deficiency is indicated as a result of soil analysis, it is necessary to apply sufficient 15-15-15 fertilizer depending on the current situation in the soil. Because the three figures on the compound fertilizers, N-P-K, which is cheaper than the nitrogen - phosphorus - potassium nutrient ratio, should be preferred.

Autumn Tillage: In sunflower farming, the aim of cultivating the soil is to prepare a good seed bed, bury the remnants of the stalk from the front plant, ventilate the soil, and increase the water stored in the soil by destroying weeds. For this purpose, after harvesting the front plant sunflower planting planted with plow plow should be applied at a depth of 20-25 cm. If this first version is carried out at different depths each year, the formation of the plow base is prevented. After the first release, if significant grazing is observed in the field due to falling rains, these herbs should be cultivated by cultivating the soil at a depth of 10-15 centimeters.

Spring Soil Tillage: Sunflowers require a moist seedbed for a smooth exit. To ensure this, when the soil comes to the pan in the spring, the field is first prepared for cultivation with a cultivator (crowbar) and then with a rake or spring rake at a depth of 10-15 centimeters. OCTOBER TIME: Sowing time is closely related to soil temperature. Soil temperature should be at least 8-10 oC for germination to be good. At higher temperatures, the seeds germinate and grow faster. Considering the climatic conditions of our regions, sunflower sowing time is March in Aegean, Southeast Anatolia Regions, April in Marmara, Central Anatolia and Black Sea Regions and May in Eastern Anatolia Regions. The climate of that year is undoubtedly important in determining the sowing time. Sunflower cultivation should be done as early as possible depending on the climate in a dry production.

Early planting allows sunflowers to better benefit from winter and spring rainfall. SEED: Seeds are of great importance in ecological sunflower cultivation. Hybrid (hybrid) sunflower varieties were rapidly replaced by the open pollinated variety (Vniimk-8931) which was previously produced in the 1980s. Producers can obtain high yielding sunflower seeds from both public and private sector seed institutions, especially in ecological agriculture. Producers should pay attention to the following points when choosing these seeds:

a) Every year sunflower producers must plant new certified seeds.

b) Seeds to be sown clean, germination rate and high output power should be.

c) Sunflower seeds should be preferred in order to avoid low yields in fields with orangans.

d) If the variety to be sown is sensitive to mildew (corner disease) and without medication, it must be applied with an environmentally friendly seed medicine before planting against this disease.

Autumn Tillage: In sunflower farming, the aim of cultivating the soil is to prepare a good seed bed, bury the remnants of the stalk from the front plant, ventilate the soil, and increase the water stored in the soil by destroying weeds. For this purpose, after harvesting the front plant sunflower planting planted with plow plow should be applied at a depth of 20-25 cm. If this first version is carried out at different depths each year, the formation of the plow base is prevented.

After the first release, if significant grazing is observed in the field due to falling rains, these herbs should be cultivated by cultivating the soil at a depth of 10-15 centimeters. Spring Soil Tillage: Sunflowers require a moist seedbed for a smooth exit. To ensure this, when the soil comes to the pan in the spring, the field is first prepared for cultivation with a cultivator (crowbar) and then with a rake or spring rake at a depth of 10-15 centimeters.

OCTOBER TIME:

Sowing time is closely related to soil temperature. Soil temperature should be at least 8-10 oC for germination to be good. At higher temperatures, the seeds germinate and grow faster. Considering the climatic conditions of our regions, sunflower sowing time is March in Aegean, Southeast Anatolia Regions, April in Marmara, Central Anatolia and Black Sea Regions and May in Eastern Anatolia Regions. The climate of that year is undoubtedly important in determining the sowing time. Sunflower cultivation should be done as early as possible depending on the climate in a dry production. Early planting allows sunflowers to better benefit from winter and spring rainfall.

SEED: Seeds are of great importance in ecological sunflower cultivation. Hybrid (hybrid) sunflower varieties were rapidly replaced by the open pollinated variety (Vniimk-8931) which was previously produced in the 1980s. Producers can obtain high yielding sunflower seeds from both public and private sector seed institutions, especially in ecological agriculture. Producers should pay attention to the following points when choosing these seeds:

a) Every year sunflower producers must plant new certified seeds.

b) Seeds to be sown clean, germination rate and high output power should be.

c) Sunflower seeds should be preferred in order to avoid low yields in fields with orangans.

d) If the variety to be sown is sensitive to mildew (corner disease) and without medication, it must be applied with an environmentally friendly seed medicine before planting against this disease.

OCTOBER:

Sunflowers are usually planted with two types of seeder (seeder). The first type of conventional sowing machines can only be adjusted between the row and sowing can not be done in the desired range. The amount of seed used per decare is around 1.0 kg. When sowing with this type of sowing machines, when the plants emerge, the plants are brought to the desired frequency by streaking. However, sunflower producers can easily adjust row spacing, row spacing and planting depth using the second type of advanced precision (pneumatic) sowing machines.

With this type of advanced sowing machines, the sowing process is eliminated and the amount of seed used per decare can be saved significantly (maximum 350-400 gr / da) and a smooth output can be obtained. In sunflower planting, the distance between rows can be 70 cm and the distance between plants can be between 25-35 cm depending on soil fertility and rainfall. In short varieties, the distance between the plants in rows should be approximately 25 cm, 30 cm for medium and 35 cm for tall. In dry and less fertile soil conditions, the distance can be 35-40 cm, and 25 cm in watered, rainy and fertile soil conditions.

Depending on the variety and soil conditions, the desired number of plants per decare can be between 4000-5500 in order to obtain high yields. Sowing depth is related to soil moisture. Sowing depth can be 5-6 cm in a well-prepared annealed seed bed and in early planting.

On the other hand, it is appropriate that the sowing depth should be between 6-7.5 cm in order to ensure that the soil annealing is insufficient and the seed falls into the moist soil layer, especially in late sowing. When sowing more than 8 cm deep, it becomes difficult for sunflower to reach the soil surface and the desired plant density per decare cannot be achieved.

MAINTENANCE: Misfire :: Misfire, if the conventional sowing machine is used in planting, plant height 8-10 cm. When weak, diseased and damaged plants should be cleaned first. When sowing, precision (pneumatic) sowing machines are used, no need to misfire. Hoeing: The height of the plants is 30-50 cm. between the rows should be processed with crowbar or hoeing machine. This process helps to reduce water loss by evaporation from the soil by swelling the soil and mechanically destroying weeds.

IRRIGATION:

Ecologically, the water used in agricultural irrigation should be clean and not to have a negative impact on both the field soil and the crop. Incorrect irrigation has a negative impact on product quality and yield. The polluting factors used in irrigation today are: Solid (dust), liquid and gas wastes left without purification from industrial plants as industrial pollution, - Domestic liquid and solid wastes as urban pollution, - Excess nitrate, pesticide, herbicide and hormones used for obtaining high yield as agricultural pollution, - Pollution from nuclear power plants and other nuclear work as radioactive pollution. The most important method of pollution control in irrigated areas should be protected with the most appropriate management techniques against potential pollutants that cause pollution of water resources.

As the most suitable irrigation technique, irrigation programming is one of the most applicable techniques for controlling pesticide and fertilizer washing caused by water loss caused by deep infiltration. This method aims to achieve sustainable agricultural development that does not disrupt the environment by protecting water, soil, plant and animal resources, technically applicable, economically reliable and socially acceptable. Irrigation Times in Sunflowers: If there is not enough moisture in the soil during sunflower sowing period, an outlet irrigation can be done. In addition to this, if the beneficial water in the field soil decreases in the early development periods of the plant, in other words, when the plants start to hear drought and show signs of wilt, 2-3 irrigation can be done at intervals of approximately 15-20 days.

The measure for the calculation of the irrigation interval is that the moisture in the field soil does not drop to the wilting point, and usually when the useful water in the soil falls to 50%, the amount of water to be given to the field water capacity is given. The most important irrigation times for sunflower: When Irrigation Water Is Enough: a) Formation of the first table: 50-55 days after planting, the formation of the table (star plate circuit) begins. When the growth tip of the plant begins to expand slightly from the last leaf level to form the tray, the formation of the tray is the beginning when the growth tip becomes a five centimeter diameter tray.

During this period, sunflower needs water, so irrigation should be done. b) Beginning of Flowering: After seeing the two rows of lying flowers around the table, the sequence comes to the original flowers. This period is considered as the beginning of flowering. The water requirement of the sunflower is again very high at this time, which is about 15 days after the star plate formation. c) Start of Milk Death in Grains: Grains on the table, squeezed between the two fingers inside the white milk appearance of the sunflower in this period should be watered. This is approximately 15 days after the beginning of flowering coincides.

When irrigation water is insufficient: In case of necessity, it is necessary to make a sufficient irrigation at the beginning of flowering, if necessary, to make a shortening of irrigation water, as well as a limited amount of water in the table formation and milk death periods can be watered. It is of great importance that an adequate irrigation is performed especially in the places where irrigation is possible during flowering period in order to provide the desired product increase from decare.

IRRIGATION METHODS IN SUNFLOWER AGRICULTURE:

The most useful and most effective method of irrigation should be used to avoid excessive water loss. Sunflower fields can be irrigated using sprinkler and furrow irrigation methods. Sprinkling method should be preferred for exit and early development period until the plants are 40-50 cm, and the furrow method should be preferred for the irrigation of plants before and after flowering. When the sunflower plants are 30-35 cm in the fields to be irrigated by furrow method, furrows should be opened by passing crowbar between rows. Principles of Successful Irrigation in

Ecological Sunflower Agriculture:

- The field soil to be irrigated should be deeply cultivated in autumn season with plows and similar tools.

- The sunflower plant to be grown should be watered sufficiently at certain intervals. The measure for calculating the irrigation interval is that the soil water never goes down to the continuous wilting point. Generally, when the useful water in the soil decreases to 50%, irrigation should be done to the field water capacity.

- Slanting on slopes should be done perpendicular to the slope. So the sowing rows (furrows) will be perpendicular to the slope.

- Before watering, furrows should be formed with goose foot while the plants are 25-30 cm tall.

- Siphon type tools should be used to provide equal water to furrows.

- During irrigation of the sunflower field, it should be checked with an iron bar to see if the water reaches the root depth in the soil. - Irrigation water should be ensured to reach the roots of sunflower plants.

- Considering the soil structure and length of the field, the irrigation period should be adjusted well.

- Organic matter is consumed quickly in irrigated soils and the physical structure of the soil is deteriorated. For this reason, it is very useful to use barn or green manure to protect the soil structure of irrigated agricultural areas in terms of organic matter. - Irrigated agricultural areas should be leveled very well during soil preparation and irrigation water should not be allowed to pond in the field. In case of ponding, excess water should be drained as soon as possible. Otherwise, the ponded water causes the plant roots to die as a result of not getting enough air or the growth decreases and causes the plants to turn yellow. - The quality of the irrigation water should be ensured. Very salty, industrial wastes and polluted waters are not suitable for irrigation. If irrigated with these unsuitable waters, the fields may become barren. - Salinization is quick especially in long-term pond irrigation, especially in poorly drained agricultural lands. Therefore, irrigated irrigation should be avoided.