Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

QUINCE CULTIVATION Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

The best climate for Ayvalar is mild sea climate.

However, we are often found in the quarters of our country far away from the sea climate, for example in the provinces of Central Anatolia.

However, the growth of quince in such places depends on the appropriate directions and valleys.

Quince tree is resistant to cold winter conditions in Turkey until the pear.

This type of fruit winter desire to cool down is less than quince and pear.

It grows late, especially in cold places because the flowers occur at the ends of the shoots growing that year. It blooms with plums in warm climates.

Does not grow well in very windy places. Branches break.

Too much fruit dump. Its leaves and fruits are sensitive to sclerotinia (mummy).

The product is endangered in rainy places.

SOIL REQUEST IN Quince Cultivation Grows in sandy loamy, permeable hot soils.

It is not necessary for the soil to be too deep as its roots are outcroped and do not go too deep.

However, this should never be combined with suffocating moisture conditions. In cold and moist soils, the fruits become woody and their quality decreases.

If hawthorn is used as rootstock for quince, then it is possible to grow it on dry sandy soils, but generally in such cases the growth of trees is low and yield is low.

Important note:

Always use Wet spreader glue if your irrigation or spray water has a pH of 8 - 8.5 every time you spray your garden. (Soil and water pH in many regions of our country is up to 8- 8.5 or even up to 9.) All drugs produced are produced according to the pH range of 6-7. Even the best quality medicines lose their effect by up to 30%, from 6 to 15 minutes. Buddha will reduce the effect of your medicine.

For this reason, our advice to your holder, tank or back pump,

TANK RANKING (DO NOT BREAK THE RANKING)

1 PH DECREASING ADHESIVE  It reduces the pH of the spraying water and prevents the deterioration of the drug. Once the medicines are applied to the plant, it allows the drug to spread to the leaf and prevents it from flowing through the leaves.
2 PLANT FOOD Provides smooth and balanced nutrition of the plant. It makes the fruits attractive, bright, colorful, large, durable, hard, heavy, tasty and pleasantly fragrant.
3 INSECTICIDES Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, according to the pest period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
4 FUNGUSİT MUSHROOM (After mixing in a separate container) Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, depending on the disease period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
5 OTHER Other trace elements recommended by technical staff.  

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

LIME SOLVENT It should be used in calcareous soils at the beginning of the season. Lime wrapped around capillary roots destroys the creamy layer. Soil bound iron, phosphorus and phosphates are released in the soil, the plant uses them. you do not need to use iron and phosphorus fertilizers repeatedly. 1 Kg drip irrigation per hectare
PLANT FOOD First application before flowering,
second application in fruit attitude,
The third application is done 45 days before harvest
Two applications with 300 gr / 100 lt water in all periods required.
200-300 cc
ZINC Apply when eyes explode and flowering is over. The most important time to apply the fruit is collected (before the leaves fall yet) configure. It allows the accumulation of zinc in the eyes of next spring and healthy new shoots. 125-150 cc
DRIP IRRIGATION NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, BALANCED, POTASSIUM It should be used regularly every semester. NPK of the plant must be met 2-3 kg
ORGANIC Organic based drip irrigation and release irrigation fertilizer. Fifteen days apart. One empty, one full watering or split quantities full watering Dönüme
5-7 kg

Foliar fertilizer should be used in every application. Leaf fertilizers prevent plants from getting stressed. It meets the micro element needs of plants. Improves fruit set and quality of fruits

Rosellinia necatrix
Armillaria mellea
Venturia pirina
Armutta geriye ölüm
Armut Alternarya
monilya
.
Ayva monilyası
Diplocarpon mespili)
elma klorotik yaprak leke v
Armutta memeli pas
elma
kullemesi
kok
kanseri
Erwinia amylovora
Cydia pomonella)
Panonychus ulmi
Epicometis hirta
Parthenoleca- nium corni
İki kabarcıklı koşnil
Toprak alti zararlilar
Hoplocampa spp.
Aphis
pomi
Archips rosanus
Cydia molesta
Phyllonorycter gerasimowi
Cossus cossus
Zeuzera pyrina
Euproctis chrysorrhoea
Hyphantria cunea
Stephanitis pyri
Epidiaspis leperii
Cacopsylla pyri
Eriophyes pyri
Scolytus rugulosus
Lepidosaphes ulmi
Malacosoma neustria
Spilonota ocellana

FERTILIZATION IN QUEV CULTIVATION

In the case of iron deficiency in Ayvali, the symptom is called chlorosis or jaundice. Araz shows itself mostly on chalky and nutrient-poor soils. The land intensifies especially during rainy seasons. In cases where chlorosis is caused by iron deficiency, the leaf veins are green, whereas the inter-vein tissue is yellow. The symptom starts on young leaves and progresses to old leaves. At the edges of such leaves, reddish or brown drying occurs over time. Due to the disruption of photosynthesis, the development slows down, yield decreases and as a result the tree may die. Chlorose is caused by the excess lime taken into the plant and the free iron contained in the plant. Iron, which acts as a catalyst in the formation of chlorophyll, cannot perform this task when held by lime. Iron retention is not only within the plant. Iron II compounds in extremely calcareous soils. It turns into iron III compounds and binds to the soil and cannot be taken up by the plant.

Quince trees in nitrogen deficiency, leaves are small, narrow, light green color. Old leaves can be yellowish orange colored or reddish purple colored and shed early. Leaf stems appear to form a narrow angle to the branch, are thin and short, and if the deficiency is very severe, the stems die. Shoot development is weak. The number of buds and flowers is low and the fertilization time of the flowers is short. Fruits are colored before ripening. When quince orchards are given nitrogen fertilizer in spring, fruit quality improves and decreases in spill. However, it is desirable that the nitrogenous fertilizer given is depleted before Ayvalar matures.

Quince trees make similar damage to boron deficiency. The flower suddenly fades as if it is damaged by the cold and becomes black brown. But they do not fall as they stand on the branch for a while. Although frost damages create the same appearance, flowers affected by frost are immediately shed. In case of severe deficiency, leaf output is delayed. Vegetative growth points die, shoots become short, leaves are small and distorted shape. However, chlorosis is not seen in the leaves. Quince, apple and pear fruits have large deformations and fungus inside and outside. Fruits are smaller than normal and sometimes crack.

External fungus caused by boron deficiency should not be confused with bitter speckle disease caused by calcium deficiency. Bitter speckle occurs on the branch, either too late or more often after harvest, during storage. A typical symptom of zinc deficiency in quince trees is the formation of shrunken, shrunken leaves and rosettes. The reason for this measurement is that the lengths of the nodes are considerably shortened. Leaf edges sometimes become wavy. Yellow leaf mosaic stains occur between the veins, with the vascular edges of the leaf surface remaining green. If deficiency is not too severe only affects the leaves, shoot development continues normally. However, if deficiency is severe, shoot development stops completely. The number of fruit buds in shoots decreases or disappears completely. Blackening is seen in the fruit meats of stone fruits. Quince trees show great differences among them in terms of sensitivity to zinc deficiency. In quince trees, phosphorus deficiency leaves are small, dark green color, bronze or purple stained. Leaf stems are reddish in color and they stand upright so that their connections with the branch are narrow.

It has a sparse leaf system.

Dark brown necrosis occurs on the edges of old leaves. Early foliage is seen. The number of flowers and fruits is low. Fruits remain small and shed before ripening. Fruits are dull, dull in color, hard and have a dense texture and are tasteless. If the amount of phosphorus is too high compared to nitrogen, the fruit flesh becomes coarse textured again. In some cases, the streaks extend to the edges of the leaves. Spots rapidly turn into reddish brown necroses. The leaves then fade, curl, dry and shed early. Fruits become tasteless and odorless. Delicious variety Ayvalar is very sensitive to magnesium deficiency.

In the potassium deficiency, brown and brown colored chlorosis is formed on the edges of the leaves and these regions dry. In contrast, the leaves can remain on the tree for a long time.

Fruits become small and pale, thick rind. The amount of sugar is low and the taste is sour. The amount of fertilizer to be given to the quince orchards varies according to the tillage procedure, the character of the soil, the growth power of the tree, the age, and the amount of the crop taken. It is best to determine the amount of fertilizer to be given by soil and leaf analysis. In the absence of potash in the quince trees, the yellowing of the leaves starts, then the brown leaves completely dry and die. In dry years, the lack of potash is more harmful.

Potassium is an element that affects trees' photosynthesis, starch and sugar making. Potassium prevents periodicity because it plays a role in the formation of flower eyes.

GARDEN PLANT IN QUEV CULTIVATION

Covering quince orchards are rare in almost every part of the world. In our country, there are also quince orchards in Eşmede and İzmir in the vicinity of Sapanca Lake. When setting up quince orchards, the trees that will be grown as single-trunk are spaced 3 to 4 m apart and usually have a square shape. They are planted at 4x5 or 5x6 m intervals and distances in vertical rectangular planting. The spacing to be given varies depending on the soil type and cultivation system. Planting pruning seedlings are kept in the soil on the soil in temperate climates between November - January is recommended to be planted. In the colder regions, seedlings should be planted in February and March. Since most of the cultivated quince varieties are self-productive, a single type of closure quince garden can be established. However, pollination and fertilization are needed to obtain smooth shaped fruits.

For this, it is useful to make a mixture of varieties. For healthy pollination and fertilization in the garden during planting, the garden should be established by giving place to the mixtures that bloom in the same period. Otherwise, in some years when climatic events have gone negatively, there is a significant decrease in fruit set rates.

SOIL PROCESSING IN QUEV CULTIVATION The most important point to be considered while tilling the quince orchards is to avoid plowing the soil deep. Quince roots are close to the face and soil face. If the plowing is made deep, the roots will be cut too much and the trees will be damaged. One of the gardens in spring and early summer is enough to be driven. It is very useful to plant a cover plant after this time.

Covered soil tillage in the garden does not have any tillage. Only over-sorted herbs are harvested or regularly combated with weed medicines, especially under trees. In semi-covered or temporary covered soil tillage, in the spring and summer, when tillage is suitable in the garden, it is processed. In autumn and winter, soil tillage is done once or not at all. Care should be taken when using weed medicine, especially in young gardens and tree trunks should be protected from the effect of the drug. Otherwise, the development of young trees will be adversely affected.

IRRIGATION IN QUEV CULTIVATION; It is irrigated in summer in dry places, such as in Central Anatolia, in the quince orchards. In order for the trees to develop a healthy development and to obtain regular and high quality fruits, irrigation is absolutely necessary. During irrigation, excessive water and irrigation water should not be allowed to touch the tree trunk. It is useful to install drip or mini-sprinkler systems to the extent possible. Release and furrow irrigation should be avoided as much as possible. In places where there is no water, quince orchards can only be installed in areas with sufficient rainfall and well-distributed rainfall.

PRUNING IN QUEVE CULTIVATION; In quince cultivation, pruning starts with the purchase of seedlings. In pruning there are benefits (in terms of ease of application) of using Goble (Vase, Bowl) or modified variants of this shape, which are closer to the natural growth pattern of quince. The trunk is crowned low and in the coming years, the crown is not raised further with tip pickings. However, cutting should not be done more than necessary in case of tip pickings. Because the fruit is formed at the ends of shoots and the tree can be completely fruitless if too many tips are taken. Especially in warmer climates, it is useful to implement a system close to the peak branch shape (peak-branch dominance disappears as the years progress). Quince forms a smooth crown. Therefore, if crowning is done well in the beginning, there is no need for more pruning in the following years.

Reproduction of quince and rootstocks Although the quince varieties are autogam provides the possibility to produce with this kind of seed, the species can be easily grown vegetatively, so the cultivation of varieties is largely steel, dip shoots or in some cases vaccine. In cases where vaccination is required, stagnant ocular vaccination is preferred. Although the quince develops properly on the quince rootstock growth on hawthorn is slow and weak. There is always a swelling at the vaccine sites and the pen side.

HARVEST The maturity of quince fruits is understood by the fact that the green color of the fruit peel begins to turn yellow and the pile varieties are easily wiped. Early collected fruits are often dehydrated, tasteless and suffocating. Ayvalar is collected by hand and with the help of a scissors or knife. The fruit is cut off from the junction with the plunge. Special attention should be paid not to damage the fruits during harvesting. Quince fruits are apparently hard and therefore resistant to pressures, but not really. Fruit flesh is quickly damaged. The damaged places darken and begin to decompose. For this reason, it is necessary to be very careful both in the collection and in the subsequent handles. For picking, a time is chosen when the fruits are not moist, and usually my skin is made in one tree at a time.

STORAGE OF QUINS IN WAREHOUSE Ayvalar can be stored in cold air stores for 2-3 months after my skin. The optimum storage temperature is 1.5 OC and the best air relative humidity is 75 - 80%. Ayvalar should not be kept together with other fruits during storage. Heavy scents can penetrate other fruits and spoil their taste.