Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

BROAD BEAN Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Cultivation Although the development period is as long as 120 200 days, it does not require much heat.

It is a warm climate plant and can withstand a little more cold than cowpea, beans and peas.

Pods like rainy and humid climates.

 It grows well in areas that receive regular and sufficient precipitation during the development period or can be irrigated.

Since fresh pods are produced in winter or spring, climatic conditions should not be dry or cold in this period.

It can withstand temperatures of –4 and –6 ° C in the first period when pod seeds germinate and rise to the soil surface of the plant.

If the temperature drops to –10 ° C, it will cause the death of the plants.

The soil temperature is between 9 ° C and the air temperature is between 10-14 ° C.

Normally a temperature of 10-20 ° C is required for plant growth.

Excessive precipitation and drought at the time of germination significantly reduces pod yield.

If a warm air passes during the germination period, the amount of product increases.

Sea air is the air in which the pod can adapt best.

Pods are partially long day plant.

Green parts develop well in short days.

For generative development, the daily illumination time must exceed 12 hours.

Soil will Broad beans, permeable, organic matter-rich water holding capacity with high loam clay soils give the best results.

When earliness is considered, light sandy soils are considered as high yields, and alluvial and clay soils and treated soils are preferred.

The best yield is obtained when the soil is neutral or slightly alkaline.

Important note:

Always use Wet spreader glue if your irrigation or spray water has a pH of 8 - 8.5 every time you spray your garden. (Soil and water pH in many regions of our country is up to 8- 8.5 or even up to 9.) All drugs produced are produced according to the pH range of 6-7. Even the best quality medicines lose their effect by up to 30%, from 6 to 15 minutes. Buddha will reduce the effect of your medicine.

For this reason, our advice to your holder, tank or back pump,

TANK RANKING (DO NOT BREAK THE RANKING)

1 PH DECREASING ADHESIVE  It reduces the pH of the spraying water and prevents the deterioration of the drug. Once the medicines are applied to the plant, it allows the drug to spread to the leaf and prevents it from flowing through the leaves.
2 PLANT FOOD Provides smooth and balanced nutrition of the plant. It makes the fruits attractive, bright, colorful, large, durable, hard, heavy, tasty and pleasantly fragrant.
3 INSECTICIDES Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, according to the pest period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
4 FUNGUSİT MUSHROOM (After mixing in a separate container) Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, depending on the disease period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
5 OTHER Other trace elements recommended by technical staff.  

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

LIME SOLVENT It should be used in calcareous soils at the beginning of the season. Lime wrapped around capillary roots destroys the creamy layer. Soil bound iron, phosphorus and phosphates are released in the soil, the plant uses them. you do not need to use iron and phosphorus fertilizers repeatedly. 1 Kg drip irrigation per hectare
PLANT FOOD First application before flowering,
second application in fruit attitude,
The third application is done 45 days before harvest
Two applications with 300 gr / 100 lt water in all periods required.
200-300 cc
ZINC Apply when eyes explode and flowering is over. The most important time to apply the fruit is collected (before the leaves fall yet) configure. It allows the accumulation of zinc in the eyes of next spring and healthy new shoots. 125-150 cc
DRIP IRRIGATION NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, BALANCED, POTASSIUM It should be used regularly every semester. NPK of the plant must be met 2-3 kg
ORGANIC Organic based drip irrigation and release irrigation fertilizer. Fifteen days apart. One empty, one full watering or split quantities full watering Dönüme
5-7 kg

Foliar fertilizer should be used in every application. Leaf fertilizers prevent plants from getting stressed. It meets the micro element needs of plants. Improves fruit set and quality of fruits.

 

The pH should be between 7-7.5. In acidic soils, bean growth slows down and yield is very low. In such soils, the visit of plant roots to nodosity bacteria and formation rate of nodosity is very low.

Soil preparation and sowing

Broad beans can be grown as winter and summer. In winter sowing, the field is applied after stubble and prepared for sowing. In summer planting, the soil is sown deep after stubble decay. It is prepared for sowing by sowing again before sowing in spring. Because the pods are planted deep, the soil must be deeply processed and cleaned of weeds. Soil cultivation can be carried out in the regions suitable for winters until the spring, starting in October and November.

For the first turfanda in our country, seed cultivation can be carried out in winter and sowing routes in the Mediterranean and Aegean regions close to the marine climate until the end of November. Seed sowing is carried out in regions with cold winters such as Central Anatolia in March-April and in regions where late spring frosts continue longer such as D. Anatolia. This form of production is called cottage production.

There are three ways of seed cultivation in pods. Spreading sowing should not be preferred due to the fact that more seeds are sown in the unit area and maintenance work is difficult. In this system, more seeds are planted in the unit area and the germination becomes irregular. Quarry sowing is done in small enterprises.

Row seeds and row 30-50 cm intervals opened in the quarry 2-3 seeds are thrown and covered with soil is pressed. In row method sowing, the distance between the rows is between 40-70 cm depending on the cultivation and branching force of the cultivar and on the way of irrigation and hand or machine.

Broad bean seeds require more water to germinate, so the sowing depth should be high. Sowing depth varies depending on the size of the seed and the soil structure. Sowing depth should be 7-8 cm in big seed beans and 5-6 cm in small seed.

Sowing depth should be 5-6 cm in heavy soils and 8-10 cm in row with light textured soil. In another cultivation method applied in our country, a worker who walks behind the plow to the plow lines leaves the seeds at equal intervals and the seeds thrown to the plow lines are covered. In this form of sowing, the plow is too deep or superficial to open the lines and the seeds fall to different depths do not occur a regular germination.

The amount of seed to be planted in the unit area varies according to the size of the seeds, the distance between the row and the distance to be left and the number of seeds to be thrown into the hearth. Accordingly, the amount of seed per decare is as follows;

Spreading sowing Small grain seeds 18-25 kg 14-20 kg

Medium grain seeds 20-32 kg 18-25kg

Seeds of large grain 28-38 kg 22-30kg In practice,

there should be 12-18 plants per m2.

Hoeing Seeds

sown on annealed soils prepared for pod production grow germinated in 10-15 days. The first diameter is made when the 8-10 cm length of the plants exposed to soil surface is taken. During this period, the throat of the plants is filled. Before the germination, the second anchor is used to ensure that the soil is raised and the cream layer is broken and cleaned from weeds. No anchors are made during germination.

If germination is done during this period, the flowers will fall out. As a result, the yield decreases.

Broad beans are fought against by selective herbicides. Irrigation If the air goes dry during the development period of the pod, watering must be done before flowering. After tying the fruit, watering is repeated at regular intervals according to the need of the plant. Especially in spring production, regular and continuous irrigation is important for a good product.

Fertilization If seed sowing is to be carried out in the spring, 2-3 tonnes of well-qualified burnt farm manure should be given per decare several months before sowing in the previous autumn. In order to obtain high quality and high yields from the pods, a little nitrogen fertilization is needed until initially it forms plant nodosities. 8-10 kg nitrogen fertilizer per decare is sufficient.

Phosphorus fertilizers are also required for bacterial flora in the soil. If enough phosphorus is found in the soil, the bacteria pass to the pod roots and the growth of the plant is rapid.

Lack of phosphorus slows down protein synthesis in pods. 10-15 kg of phosphorus is sufficient for one decare of bean production. Potassium is required for nodule formation in the pod and for the detection of nitrogen.

High doses of potassium reduce yield and quality. 10-20 kg of potassium per decare is sufficient.

Maturity, Harvest and Storage The harvesting time of the pods varies according to the way they are evaluated as fresh pods, fresh inner pods and dry grains. For fresh beans, harvested fruits are made by hand, gradually when they take 1/3 or up to ½ of the normal size of the variety. It is sufficient that the beans harvested as turfanda have 5-7 cm length. Although the weight of the beans harvested in this period is low, the price is quite high. Due to the fall in price, the size of the harvested beans increases. As time passes, the grains in the pods harden and the pods of the pods harden and lose their ability to be evaluated as fresh. Such beans are then treated as fresh inner beans.

The collection of beans in the harvest of fresh pods should not be done by pulling off the arrival of the beautiful. When the pod is harvested, the very gentle branch can easily break. For this purpose, the harvested beans should be separated from the trunk by holding them by hand and gently peeling them downwards. Otherwise, the beans will quickly become black from long contact and lose market value. In the evaluation of fresh pods, the pods are harvested a little later, so that the seeds grow in them, but the harvest must be done without hardening of the seeds.

Broad beans are consumed as fresh storage and storage is out of the question. The accumulation occurs in the market where the amount of product is high. In this case, price decreases occur. In the years when the amount of product is high, the pods are harvested later and evaluated as fresh inner pods and dry grains. Yield The amount of product to be obtained from a decare area varies depending on the sowing time, cultivar production, harvest time and the manner of evaluation.

1000-1500 kg of fresh beans from a decare area. 700-900 kg of fresh internal pods are harvested. As dry grain 150-300 kg per decare can be harvested. Seed Production Seed production in pods is no different from fresh pod production for the market. Soil preparation, sowing and maintenance works are just like fresh production for the market. In seed production, the harvested beans are harvested in the period when the leaves are shed, the first fruits on the stem darken and the top fruits begin to turn yellow in order to prevent grain loss due to their cracking. Bean plants are harvested by hand or sickle.

The harvested beans are allowed to dry in bundles. The dried beans are blended at the harvest site. Care should be taken not to crack the dried grains.

After the harm, the pods are cleaned and sorted and stored in sacks. 150 to 300 grains are harvested per decare. Straw obtained from harvest is a valuable animal feed. Broad beans, which have an important place in human nutrition, are consumed in different ways in our country as in many countries due to the richness of the vegetable protein it contains. Fresh beans, fresh beans, fresh beans and canned artichokes, as well as mixed dishes, especially in winter, prepared in dry beans called fava bean paste is the most popular consumption forms. 47.000 tons of dry grain pods are produced in our country.

Dried bean is a vegetable which has great importance in both human and animal nutrition with its protein content of 20-36%. The amount of protein in green beans is 5-7% and in green seeds in milk is 3-10%. While the rate of protein decreases in early ripening varieties, it increases in late ripening varieties.