Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

TURKISH TEA GROWING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Tea is a supturopic climate plant. Tea regions of our country is not a supturopic climate region, but because it is a microclimate, tea can be grown here.

Tea grows up to 42 latitude in the northern hemisphere and 300 latitude in the southern hemisphere.

In areas where tea is grown, the temperature should not fall below 0 ° C. If the temperature drops below -15 C, the tea will freeze completely. Chinese hybrids can withstand -14 C 0. Provided there is no drought, tea yield increases at high temperature.

If the annual average temperature falls below + 140, economic teas cannot be made in that region. Tea plant requires plenty of water. Precipitation should be 1200 mm per year.

Rainfall should be distributed evenly in the yield cycle according to months and even days.

In order for the tea plant to yield abundant and high quality crops, the average annual relative humidity should be more than 70%. The distribution of relative humidity by months should also be regular.

SOIL REQUEST

He doesn't like calcareous soils. 5% of lime in the soil stops the development. Soil acid character should be between pH 4.5-6.

If the pH is lower than 4 and higher than 6, the development slows down and even stops. Soil should be rich in nutrients and humus.

TEA AREA IN TURKEY

easternmost point of the tea steep village on the border in Turkey will start from Russia, the West, the army ended up taking them into little part of the province. The main areas where the tea is collected are the coastal part of this strip.

It expands from 15 to 20 km from the coast to the interior.

In the eastern Black Sea region, from the Araklı Stream to the west of the Sürmene district, from the Russian border, it forms genuine tea fields.

Other parts of Trabzon province and Giresun, Ordu provinces form the second part of the tea field.

Tea yield and quality decrease from east to west.

Even though tea grows up to 1000 meters above sea level, the yield is low and quality increases.

BREEDING TECHNIQUE

Land Selection:

To establish a good teapot, the following features should be sought in the field.

South, South east and South West directions should be selected.

Land with soil suitable for tea should be selected.

The land should not be sloping more than 50%.

Continuous wind should avoid back and hills.

Ground water should not set up near the river beds and mountain bottoms.

TEA PLANT IN MEYLILI LAND

The trees and shrubs of the land are cut completely. In order to prevent flooding, channels are opened to the top and side of the land.

The route of a zigzag road is drawn considering the slope of the land. After that, the terrain which is inclined is set.

The terracing starts from the top of the land and continues downwards.

Sets should be slightly inclined backwards not fully upright. In the sets, the part where the tea is to be planted is made by 0.5% portion.

In this way, rain water is left on the set. The width of the set should be 120 cm. The side of the sets facing the front of the land is called slope.

After the end of the embankment, a 20 cm distance from the slope of the hard is made as a 40 cm wide, 40-50 cm deep strip.

If the soil is raw soil, 3-4 tons of barn manure is given per decare. The land is left empty for one year in order to ensure the operation of microorganisms.

Benefits of Land Tapping

It prevents water erosion that occurs in sloping land.

The fertilizer given to the soil is prevented from flowing.

Since regular rows will be formed on the sets, pruning, fertilizing and harvesting are easier and easier.

SEED SELECTION

Seed is selected from the seedlings that give more shoots but less seed. Seeds ripening in September, October or November are taken and passed through a 1.5 cm sieve.

The remains on the sieve are separated. These bright, plump, large, round and uniform seeds are taken.

Before sowing these seeds are kept in water for 24 hours.

Those collected on water are discarded. Tea seeds germinate in the sand 20-25 0 10-15 days.

To facilitate germination, the seeds are kept in 15 0 hot water for 1 day and then folded in wet sacks or sand. Wait here until the shells crack.

OCTOBER

For planting, the thoracic section is loosened at 30-40 cm depth and 30 cm width at 50 cm intervals, 40 cm away from the slope.

A pit is opened, 3-4 seeds are placed in the form of hair legs. 4-5 cm thick soil is covered and pressed on them. The location of the seed is marked with a piece of twig.

In spring, young and fresh seedlings are planted throughout the legume seeds to protect them from the burning sun and enrich the soil with nitrogen.

TEA PLANT ON FLAT LAND

Since the ground water of the flat land is usually close to the surface, it causes root rot.

In order to prevent this, trenches are opened in order to ensure that water flows in and around the land. The land is driven deeply.

3-4 tons of barn manure is spread per decare. Between flat rows 120 cm and 50 cm above rows.

2-3 seedlings grow from seeds placed in each quarry, both in set land and in flat land.

The best one is left and the others are dismantled. Young seedlings with nutrients from the soil until the third age good root system and a strong body.

For this, nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium should be given to young saplings sufficiently.

In order to achieve this, 7.5 kg nitrogen and 2.5 kg phosphorus fertilizer mixture are given to one year old seedlings.

Ammonium sulphate should be given from nitrogenous fertilizers and super phosphate should be given from phosphorus fertilizers.

Super phosphate is applied to the soil before seed sowing.

In this way, fertilization is utilized until the germination of the seed.

Ammonium sulphate fertilizer accelerates the development of the leaf is given three times in the development period.

The first 1/3 of the fertilizer is given after the middle of April, 1/3 is given in June and the remaining 1/3 is given in the first week of August.

Weed control is made in tea seedlings at the second age. Legumes such as soy, vetch are planted.

The amount of chemical fertilizer is doubled in the first year. Superphosphate is administered once in November and ammonium sulphate is administered three times.

Weed control continues at the third age. Legumes are cultivated and the amount of fertilizer is tripled in the first year. The application is like the second age.

Important note:

Always use Wet spreader glue if your irrigation or spray water has a pH of 8 - 8.5 every time you spray your garden. (Soil and water pH in many regions of our country is up to 8- 8.5 or even up to 9.) All drugs produced are produced according to the pH range of 6-7. Even the best quality medicines lose their effect by up to 30%, from 6 to 15 minutes. Buddha will reduce the effect of your medicine.

For this reason, our advice to your holder, tank or back pump,

TANK RANKING (DO NOT BREAK THE RANKING)

1 PH DECREASING ADHESIVE  It reduces the pH of the spraying water and prevents the deterioration of the drug. Once the medicines are applied to the plant, it allows the drug to spread to the leaf and prevents it from flowing through the leaves.
2 PLANT FOOD Provides smooth and balanced nutrition of the plant. It makes the fruits attractive, bright, colorful, large, durable, hard, heavy, tasty and pleasantly fragrant.
3 INSECTICIDES Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, according to the pest period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
4 FUNGUSİT MUSHROOM (After mixing in a separate container) Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, depending on the disease period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
5 OTHER Other trace elements recommended by technical staff.  

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

LIME SOLVENT It should be used in calcareous soils at the beginning of the season. Lime wrapped around capillary roots destroys the creamy layer. Soil bound iron, phosphorus and phosphates are released in the soil, the plant uses them. you do not need to use iron and phosphorus fertilizers repeatedly. 1 Kg drip irrigation per hectare
PLANT FOOD First application before flowering,
second application in fruit attitude,
The third application is done 45 days before harvest
Two applications with 300 gr / 100 lt water in all periods required.
200-300 cc
ZINC Apply when eyes explode and flowering is over. The most important time to apply the fruit is collected (before the leaves fall yet) configure. It allows the accumulation of zinc in the eyes of next spring and healthy new shoots. 125-150 cc
DRIP IRRIGATION NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, BALANCED, POTASSIUM It should be used regularly every semester. NPK of the plant must be met 2-3 kg
ORGANIC Organic based drip irrigation and release irrigation fertilizer. Fifteen days apart. One empty, one full watering or split quantities full watering Dönüme
5-7 kg

Foliar fertilizer should be used in every application. Leaf fertilizers prevent plants from getting stressed. It meets the micro element needs of plants. Improves fruit set and quality of fruits.

FIRST PRUNING IN TEA

The development of the seedlings in the early stages of climate and soil conditions vary according to maintenance. The first pruning is usually done at the end of the third age.

The first pruning of seedlings is made from a height of 20cm. Crops are not collected from the first pruned and exile seedlings to ensure the development of the seedlings.

The most appropriate collection is to collect shoots that are over 50 cm. In order to make a large table on the surface of the seedlings shoots on the side branches are not broken.

Thanks to this table, a large collection surface is provided in the seedlings.

When the tea crop is mentioned, a bud ready to open and the first and second leaves following this bud come to mind. This is called two and a half leaves.

SECOND AND OTHER PRUNING

The time of the second pruning is unclear. It is due to the decrease in yield of tea plant. This depends on the soil fertility and maintenance conditions. It can usually range from five to ten years.

For pruning, the main trunk is cut from the soil level by the branches that have entered into the middle part of the seedlings.

Side branches showing a uniform development from the side branches surrounding the center point 25 cm. cut. In this way, an empty bowl shape is made.

Pruning tea is made with pruning blades. Pruning is done from inside to outside and with one eye out.

Crops are not collected from the second pruned seedlings until the first week of July.

When the seedling length is 55 cm shoots exceeding this distance are collected. The pruning level and crop picking level of the next third and other prunings are 5 cm. Increased.

PRUNING TIME

In general, it is the pruning time of the intermediate tea plant from the end of the last exile to the beginning of the next exile. This is the stagnant circuit of the tea plant.

The last period of exile begins in the Black Sea region at the end of October, and the first exile phase of next year ends in May and May.

Pruning time in tea regions with an altitude of up to 300mt is November, December and March and April, as there may be danger of freezing in places with more than 300 mt.

REJUVENATION PRUNING

Deep pruning applied to seedlings that have reached 25-30 years of age or have had 3-4 pruning times is called rejuvenation pruning.

Since the pruning level is pruned 5 cm higher than the ground in each circuit pruning, the width and height of the seedlings increase as the pruning level exceeds 30-40 cm and the crop collection level exceeds 80- 90 cm after the pruning cycle of 3-4 cycles.

As a result, tasks such as harvesting, fertilizer delivery and the like become difficult. A stagnation in development starts and crop yield decreases. Rejuvenation pruning is done to eliminate these drawbacks.

Rejuvenation pruning is exactly like the first pruning made at the end of the third year from 20 cm. The structure of the seedlings is given exactly. However, since the branches are very thick, pruning is done with a saw and the blade is polished.

EXTERNAL CIRCUITS OF TEA PLANT

The exile in the Black Sea continues for six months. Usually three, four shoot periods are seen in the appropriate season. In other words, three or four crops are collected in the kettle.

In some climatic countries, this cycle lasts for 6-7 months and 5 crops are collected.

The first period of exile in our country starts from April 5 to April 1 depending on the climate conditions and continues for 3-4 weeks. After this period, there will be a pause at the beginning of June.

At the beginning of July the second shoot cycle begins, continues for 2-3 weeks.

The third period of exile begins at the end of August or at the end of September or until the first week of November in the air availability.

In these exile periods, it is necessary to make 15-18 collections, 4 in April-May, 3-4 in June, 3 in July-August and 3 in October.

CARE OF TEA IN THE YIELD AGE

Fertilization and soil tillage are performed as maintenance procedures. In fertilization, 3 tons of barn manure is given per decare and mixed into the soil.

40 kg Amanium sulphate is given to the decare of the 4-year-old teapot, 50 kg is given to the 5-year-old, 60 kg is given to the 6-year-old and 80 kg is used for 8 years of age.

The amount of chemical fertilizer to be given to the soil should be determined as a result of soil analysis. Fertilizers should never be sprinkled on the kettles.

Fertilization done in this way causes damage to the leaves of the tea plant and a large part of the fertilizer is washed by rain before it reaches the soil and the plant cannot benefit from this fertilizer.

Another organic fertilizer, covering the teapots with plant debris (mulching), especially in slopes, established in teas, soil and water protection is effective.

As organic fertilizers, a mixture of straw and straw, leaves of forest trees, grass and similar plant materials specially grown for this purpose are used in addition to plant residues.

For this reason, pruning residues are not thrown out of the garden and laid out in the garden is of great importance as organic fertilizer.

Soil cultivation is done. In this way, the development of weeds is prevented, the growth of new side roots are encouraged, the soil is ventilated.

Soil cultivation continues until the age of 8. This Since the tea plant developed after the age of the sun is prevented from entering the soil, this situation stops the development of weeds.

The homeland of tea is a forested and rainy region in Asia where the monsoon winds of Asia are dominated by East Burmese, Northern Siamese, Upper Indochina and North East India, where the Assam borders meet under Eastern Tibet.

Tea seeds were dragged from these regions by rain water and spread to other parts of Asia.

There are 3 varieties of tea.

1- Variety assamica: Assam tea or Indian tea is also called. It is resistant to cold. The leaves are 30 cm. can grow up. The teeth on the leaf edges are very obvious. Leaves are yellowish green in the shoot period.

2- Variety sinensis: Chinese origin. It is a dwarf shrub. Resistant to diseases, cold and heat. The leaves are small. Leaf length 8 cm. It is up. In the shoot period, the leaves are slightly reddish in color.

3- Variety cambodiensis: Turkey is of Chinese origin. Dwarf is tree shaped. Leaves are greenish in the shoot period.

HERBAL PROPERTIES OF TEA

When the tea is allowed to grow naturally, the length varies according to the varieties, but can be up to 3 -20 meters. Life span is 100 years.

SMELL:

There is a strong main stem and associated fringe roots. The main root goes very deep according to the depth of the subsoil water. Fringe roots are located very close to the soil face.

The roots are fungi that detect the nitrogen of the air. Mushrooms take the nitrogen from the air and give it to the plant and take the necessary nutrients from the plant.

BODY:

It is dark or dark brown. Branching ability is high. There are many vague eyes on the trunk and branches.

The first shoots are green. The yearly shoots turn brown after the beginning of the lignification.

LEAF:

The leaves are oval. Leaf edges are toothed. There are hairs on the bud and the lower surface of the leaves. These are invisible.

FLOWER:

Male and female organs are found in the same flower. Flower stem is short. sepal leaves are green, 5-7 grains. Petals are white or dirty yellowish color 5-9.

Foreign pollination is predominant in tea.

FRUITS:

Fruits are green before ripening and brown after ripening. Fruit capsule has 3 compartments and 1 seed in each compartment. Seeds 1-2 cm in diameter sphere or hemispherical shape. Seeds contain 20-30% oil.

HARVEST

The amount of tea collected in May makes up 40-45% of the total product. The other 55-60% is collected in June, July, August, September and October. Leaf collection is done by hand. This is the most convenient way to collect.

Developing picking machines cause more than two-and-a-half leaves to be picked, reducing quality.

The collected tea leaves are filled into baskets without being pressed and transported to the leaves of the factories.

TEA FACTORY

Tea fabrication is done in 5 stages.

1- Withering

2- Curling

3- Fermentation

4- Drying

5- Classification

withering:

The amount of water in fresh tea leaves varies between 70-83%. This amount of water in the body is evaporated between 30 -50% to ensure that the leaf takes an elastic state, which is called withering. Withering 3050% of the wet tea leaf is called the fading degree of the leaf.

For example, 100 kg. wet tea leaf after fading 60 kg. if left, the degree of fading is 40%. If fresh tea leaves are curled without fading, they are curled into small pieces. Withering process is performed to ensure that the leaf bends and the juice comes out.

The most important problem withering the leaves is the fading of the leaves to the same degree. Withering is done on crawfish in the withering chambers. Crayfish 12 cm from the ground. In height. Between 12 - 20 cm. width 1 m. length 5 -10 m. It happens.

The inside of the crayfish is furnished with a canvas cloth. Fade tea leaves per m2 0.5 kg. The sheets are laid on account.

If the tea leaves are to be made in natural weather conditions by opening windows in the withering rooms, this is called withering. Of course, withering ends in 22-24 hours. If withering is done by giving warm air to the withering chamber, this is called artificial withering.

Artificial withering lasts 10 to 12 hours. In both withering methods, ventilators are installed to allow air circulation to the room. Since the temperature has a bad effect on the quality of tea, natural withering is preferred.

The temperature at the entrance of the tea withering room is 34 C0. Its output is 26 C0. The relative humidity at the inlet is 35.5% and at the outlet 80%. Water loss of leaves stops at more than 80% relative humidity. In addition, with the described boat system fading process is made.

Transformers 15 m. 2 m in length. width and 40 cm of leaf fade portions. It is depth. The bottom of the 40 cm section is perforated. Canvas cloth is placed on it.

22 kg per m2 on the canvas. 30 C0 hot air is supplied by the fans under the leaf. With this system, the leaves dry in 3-4 hours.

BENDING

Fading tea leaves