Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

STRAWBERRY GROWING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Syndication

Grape fruits are the most important species in the group.

Strawberry fruit is not a real fruit, it is a flower tray where 40-60 pistils are eaten.

Strawberry is a herbaceous plant that makes superficial root. The roots go down to 60-70 cm in well-drained soils.

In heavy soils, roots grow horizontally.

The root stem or crown of the strawberry: a very shortened stem.

Strawberry leaves are arranged spirally in 2/5 order. The embryonic leaves exploding when the weather warms up in the spring and reaches full size after 2-3 weeks.

Each leaf has a life of 1-3 months.

During the summer, the arms (stolon) develop from the buds on the seats of the new leaves.

Flowers in the form of bunches in strawberries. This can be called an altered body.

Good pollination is required in strawberries. Deformed fruit is good dusted.

After pollination, the fruit usually ripens in 30-35 days.

SENSITIVITY OF STRAWBERRY TO DAY LENGTH

Strawberry flower in the short day eyes, arm development happens in the long day. Therefore, yield and day length are related to strawberry.

Therefore, one kind of region, the other region may not match.

The relationship between day length and temperature is related to flowering formation and variety feature.

NEED COOLING IN STRAWBERRY PLANT

Although the effect of cooling on yield is controversial, it is certain that it has a positive effect on quality.

The cooling requirement of strawberries was determined as 400-500 hours.

STRAWBERRY TYPES

The grower should examine the market situation before starting strawberry production. If the producer sees the market chance of an industrial variety suitable for jam, marmalade and fruit juice, it must choose the appropriate variety.

In some regions, the foreign trade of strawberries has developed.

Other issues to be considered by the breeder;

Whether the variety is suitable for the region,

Productivity, disease resistance,

Whether the market is looking for the variety,

Resistance to carrying,

Whether the plant is strong or not.

If cultivation suitable for greenhouse cultivation is not considered, earliness is very important.

For some regions, harvesting is important in the final turf.

Strawberry garden variety should be installed with unmixed seedlings.

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

STRAWBERRY GROWING

Strawberry can be grown up to -10 oC. In colder areas, the plants should be protected from frost by covering them with materials such as straw and dry leaves.

The most suitable soil for strawberry cultivation; and soils are sandy, loamy and light soils.

Lime excess soils are not suitable for berries.

Soil pH is not a significant problem in soils with 7.0 - 7.5.

Since strawberry is sensitive to fungal diseases originating from soil, the soil where the planting will be made must be clean in terms of these diseases and nematodes.

For this, in the previous season wheat, barley, such as cereal planted land should be preferred.

In the absence of such soils, the soil should be fumigated with drugs such as methylbromite, vapam, chloropyrrin.

After the soil is deeply processed, 3-4 tons of farm manure should be discarded.

 In addition, 30-35 kg of compound fertilizer should be given per decare.

In large lands, furrow scales and in small areas, by hand 60-70 cm wide, 20-30 cm high bobbins are opened and the soil is made ready for planting.

Strawberry cultivation in spring, winter, winter, summer, autumn planting, there are 4 planting time.

Configure the best fertilization based on soil and leaf analysis. 20 kg per da as flowers bloom

Fertilization; 20 kg ammonium sulphate per decare at intervals of one month after the flower should be done every month.

A total of 100-120 kg of ammonium sulfate is given per decare.

Arm cleaning is important in terms of yield in strawberry cultivation.

The raised arms should be cleaned immediately. Otherwise, the yield decreases.

Spring Planting

It is a planting carried out in April in the regions where the winters are cold.

In this planting frigo seedlings or seedlings that are not removed in January - February months are used in seedlings.

These seedlings bloom in May and June, a small amount of fruit.

Their main product is in June of 1 year.

Water and nutrient needs of these plants should be met for 1 year and protected from diseases and pests.

Winter Planting

It is made in places with mild winters. Approximately 8000 plants per decare are planted. Planting is done with fry plants removed from the seedlings.

The best time for winter planting in the Mediterranean Region is from October 15 to November 15. Beginning from mid-March in the open in the spring, the product begins to be purchased.

In addition, if strawberry cultivation is performed under low and high tunnels, approximately 15-30 days of earliness is provided compared to open cultivation.

Seedling retention percentages are high in winter planting. Irrigation of plants does not cause significant problems.

In the second year of winter planting, taking good technical and cultural measures, disease, harmful and if weeds are well tackled, the yield may be as high as summer planting.

Planting is done on the row and row between 25 x 30 cm.

Summer Planting

Frigo is made in plants. Yield in this planting system is 2-3 times higher than in winter planting.

However, the crop is a little late compared to winter planting.

The best time for summer planting in the Mediterranean region is from July 15 to August 15. Frigo seedlings extracted from -20 OC are left in water overnight.

Then planting is done.

Seedlings are planted as 30 x 32 cm above and between rows.

In summer, watering is a big problem. Approximately 6200 plants per decare are planted.

Growing in all summer and autumn months, plants grow stronger and enter winter with 5-10 stems.

Such plants are resistant to winter cold.

Depending on the region, these plants bloom in February-March and begin to bear fruit.

In the Mediterranean coast, the product continues until June-July.

In this planting system, an average of 3-8 tons of product is taken from one decare area.

Research in the Mediterranean region for many years has shown that the summer planting system is superior to all other systems.

Planting Autumn

SEEDLING

Seedlings should be planted in cool and humid weather. Seedlings are planted at the level of the full root collar in the opened pits.

Before planting root (8-10 cm to remain), crown toilet (2-3 young leaves to be left) by increasing the rate of retention of plants.

Cansuyu is given after planting. In summer planting the plants should be watered very well for 15 days, at least 3 times a day.

Summer planting 6-8 days after planting flowers should be plucked.

STRAWBERRY GARDEN CARE

Strawberries to prevent the emergence of weeds during the early, clean and quality products to obtain the tube; black plastic, wheat stalk, pine needles should be covered with cover material (mulching). The most commonly used mulch material is black plastic covers.

Strawberry is a water sensitive plant.

Excessive irrigation results in jaundice and fungal diseases.

It should not be used if the salinity of irrigation water is more than 5.0 millimost.

Irrigation methods are sprinkler, furrow irrigation and drip irrigation.

Drip irrigation is the most ideal irrigation method because it is controlled.

Sprinkler irrigation should be performed where this method cannot be done.

DISEASES AND PEST CONTROL

Strawberry diseases are seen in roots, fruits and leaves. Soil fumigation or sterilization is essential because root diseases are transmitted from the soil.

Systemic fungicides should be discarded several times after the fruit set against fruit rot.

In places where fruit rot is seen more attention should be paid to the ventilation of low and high tunnels, plastic and glass greenhouses.

In addition, in summer plantings, the spacing between the plants and the row should be kept wide. The best way to get rid of virus and nematode problems is to establish a garden with healthy seedlings.

HARVEST AND PACKAGING

Harvest should be done early in the day.

Strawberries to be sent to the remote market should be harvested when the fruits are toasted at ¾ ratio.

Strawberry; without holding the fruit, the fruit should remain in the hand, the handle should be cut with a nail 1 cm to cut the skin, 1/2 and ¼ kg of plastic containerZarars should be sent to the market.

STRAWBERRY DISEASES AND PESTS

Mycosphaerella Fragariae
Sphaerotheca Macularis Fsp.
Botrytis Cinerea
Rhizoctonia Solani
Aphelenchoides fragariae
Frankliniella occidentalis  
Tetranychus Urticae