Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

TOMATO GROWING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Tomatoes are warm and temperate vegetables. When the temperature drops below zero (-2, -3 ºC) in the growing cycles, the plant dies completely.

Seedlings in the field in late spring frosts should be planted.

Tomatoes usually require a difference between day and night of 6 ºC to 8ºC.

Development is good when daytime temperature is 19-26 ºC and night temperature is 14-18 ºC.

Fertilization has a very close relationship with heat.

Tomato flower powders can be fertilized by germinating at desired temperatures of 10 ºC and above, and when the temperature falls below 15 ºC, the percentage of fruit binding decreases.

At low temperature pollen dust is produced very little, partially fertilized amorphous fruits occur.

Above 40 ºC, flower powders die and no fruit is formed.

For germination of tomato seeds, minimum soil temperature of 10 ºC, optimum 20-29 ºC, maximum 36 ºC is required.

SOIL REQUIREMENTS IN TOMATO GROWING:

Tomato loves deep, permeable, loamy soils with good water retention and rich in humus and nutrients.

When earliness is desired, sandy loam soils are suitable. It grows well in soils with a pH between 5.5-7.0 and less salty (less than 2.3 mS). If the soil is below pH = 5.5, 200-500 kg of lime should be given per decare, and if pH = 7.0, 30-50 kg of powder sulfur should be given per decare.

PLANT FOOD DEFICIENCIES, SYMPTOMS, REMOVAL AND FERTILIZATION IN TOMATO GROWING

In the cultivation of tomato plant nutrient deficiency, symptoms, removal, fertilization

In case of deficiency, please use one of our products or search for the following.

To avoid deficiencies, use regularly as the first leaves are up to the sparrow beak.

Zinc deficiency in tomato cultivation

  In tomato zinc nodal deficiency was thinner and shortened to half or one third of normal.

Therefore, the plant looks stunted.

The edges of the old leaves sometimes curl upwards and appear irregularly scattered, yellowish green stained.

In the chlorous areas, whitish brown and brown colored necrotic lesions are subsequently formed and quickly cover the entire leaf surface.

The leaf then dries and dies, appearing orange or gray.

Initially, the green area remains as a narrow strip around the veins.

The middle leaves are small and dark green in color since the edges are more or less curved upwards.

Towards the end of the petiole, the leaf narrows and curls thoroughly.

The leaves are thicker and brittle than normal.

  Leaf main veins sometimes curl down.

Occasionally, the vascular colors, especially on the lower surfaces of the leaves, take violet-violet brown color.

Leaf hairiness increases and as a result they exhibit a silvery-gray-green color. Fruits fry small.

Potassium deficiency in tomato

In tomato cultivation, the leaves are generally dark green in the absence of potassium and the old leaves are green in gray.

In old leaves, necrosis occurs as whitish light yellow spots.

 In cases where the stems are thin, weak, and severe deficiencies are less common in many field tomatoes, stained maturity is related to potassium deficiency and can be eliminated or reduced by application of potassium.

Nitrogen deficiency in tomato cultivation

Nitrogen deficiency in tomato leaves the leaves to remain small, light green and yellowish color, turns brown in the advanced stage causes fading.

The plant is hard and upright.

The body is thin, hard and fibrous.

Flowers often pour before ripening.

Fruits are smaller than normal and remain light green for a long time before frying.

Boron deficiency in tomato cultivation

In tomato boron deficiency small young leaves are formed thickened and breakable structure, there are brown necrotic spots.

The old leaves are yellow in color and the color is brown.

The body has a weak structure. If the deficiency is too severe, growth points die and a purplish color is formed on the body.

Fruits are small and dark inside.

Magnesium deficiency in tomato cultivation

Tomato magnesium deficiency in the old leaves between the veins, starting from the edges and inward yellowing in the form of chlorosis is seen.

Eventually the whole leaf turns yellow.

Composed of brown lumps.

Leaves hang on the stem and die.

 Phosphorus deficiency in tomato cultivation

Tomato reacts violently to phosphorus deficiency.

The leaves are hard and upright and have dark green or bluish green appearance.

Under the leaves, reddish violet color formations are seen along the vein.

The leaves curl backwards.

Old leaves turn yellow, brownish black spots appear and die prematurely.

The body becomes thin and fibrous and dark violet spots appear on the body.

Flowering and fruit weakens hope.

Fruits are small and hard and ripen without premature yellowing.

Manganese deficiency in tomato cultivation

Tomato is very sensitive to manganese deficiency.

Deficiency manifests itself in the form of discoloration between the thin veins on the leaves.

An image is formed between the green veins, including the thinest veins, as light islets surrounded by veins.

It is quite typical. Then, as the cells die, the summer spots turn brown.

Leaf stalks and stems also consist of coffee and black coffee colored necrotic spots.

If deficiency persists, growth points die. If the deficiency is severe the flowers and fruits are reduced.

Sugar and vitamin C content in the fruit is low.

Tomato plant is a deep-rooted plant, the soil must be carefully prepared by plowing deep.

If there is an impermeable layer called plow floor 50 cm below the field floor, this layer should be broken with special plows in early autumn.

In autumn, 3-4 tons of well-burned barn manure should be discarded and applied deeply.

Base fertilizer should be given before furrow preparation in spring.

Before planting seedlings, the field is applied to a depth of 20-30 cm.

Ralstonia Solanacearum
.
Double Striped Tomato V
Pseudomonas Corrugata
.
Alternaria Solani
.
Cladosporium Fulvum
.
Tomato Mosaic Tobamovırus
Phytophthora İnfestans
.
Tomato Spotted Wılt Tospovirus
 Fusarium Spp. Alternaria
Cucumber Mosaıc Cucumovirus
Botrytis Cinerea
.
Septoria Apiicola, Lycopersici
stolbur Solanaceae
.
Xanthomonas Vesicatoria
.
Clavibacter Michiganensis
Subsp.
Leveillula Taurica
.
Phytophthora Capsici
.
Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum
.
Pseudomonas Syringae Pv. Tomato
Trialeurodes Vaporariorum
.
Tuta
absoluta
.
Aculops Lycopersici
.
Tetranychus Urticae
.
Frankliniella Occidentalis
.
Aphididae
.
.
Liriomyza Trifolii
.
Heliothis Armigera
.
Agriotes Spp.
.
Gryllotalpa Gryllotalpa
.

SEEDLING CULTIVATION IN TOMATO CULTIVATION:

In seedling cultivation, generally (peat, perlite, vermiculite) or (peat, perlite, soil) or (burnt animal manure, sand, soil) is used as mixtures.

ratio is used in burnt animal manure, sand, soil mixture.  ratio is used in peat, perlite, soil mixture.

It is beneficial to disinfect seedling material (except animal manure) with a soil fumigant.

Application should be done at least 1 month before sowing.

SEED PLANTING IN TOMATO GROWING:

If the seedling growing material is annealed, watering is not necessary.

Otherwise, seedling bags or seedling growing containers filled with seedling growing material should be thoroughly watered and then seeded.

Seeds are soaked for 3-4 hours after sowing makes it easier to germinate. Seeds 1-3 cm. should be planted in depth. It is useful to gently water again after sowing.

Chemical fertilizers should be mixed with the seedling growing material at least 15 days before sowing.

The most suitable soil temperature for germination of seeds should be 12-15 ºC. At these temperatures the seeds germinate within 5-13 days.

The most appropriate time of surprise for tomato seedlings is when the cotyledon leaves complete their development and are parallel to the ground.

Healthy and fully developed seedlings should be surprised.

SEEDLING PLANTING IN TOMATO GROWING:

Planting of seedlings is done when spring frost danger is completely removed and soil and air temperature reaches 12-15 ºC. Planting is usually 7-8 weeks after sowing. Tomato seedlings blooming or holding fruit should not be planted in the field during planting.

The development of such seedlings is slow, remains stunted, yield decreases.

Planting should be done towards the evening, seedlings should not be kept under the sun.

Seedlings are usually ready to plant when they are about 15-20 cm in length. Seedling is done in our region from the end of February to the beginning of March.

In planting life water should be given enough and necessary medications should be made against root and root collar diseases together with life water.

In tomato cultivation, the intervals between rows and above vary depending on whether the variety is pole or ground type.

The range should be 60-80 cm for pole, 50-60 cm for row, 140 cm for row and 40-50 cm for row.

TOMATO GROWING:

Seedlings are planted 2 weeks after the first hoe. In tomatoes grown on tubes, the hoe is usually made by workers.

In large fields in the form of field farming, the hoeing machines drawn by tractors are used. I. 2-3 weeks after the hoe II. Anchor is made.

In this period, when the plants take up to 30-35 cm height, pole varieties II. The pole is sewn together with the anchor.

Throat filling process is also done during these hoes. II. After the hoe weeds are extracted, the cream layer is broken, the soil is ventilated and the moisture in the soil is preserved.

IRRIGATION IN TOMATO GROWING:

Tomatoes like moisture. In the absence of water, the upper leaves curl. In very moist, heavy soils, the plants become ill.

The periods when soil moisture deficiency is most sensitive; germination, emergence, flowering and fruit formation periods. Excessive soil moisture accelerates vegetative growth.

The fruits should not be irrigated unless necessary until the size of the walnut is large.

In open fields, lack of water during flowering period causes excessive spills in small fruits.

Very often watering at harvest time causes slow ripening. Irrigation can be prevented by making regular watering.

In open field, furrow irrigation, planting should be preferred in order to prevent water from touching the root throat.

With irrigated irrigation, if the soil dries in hot times, with the reflection of the sun from the soil, calcium deficiency in the soil, especially the lower parts of the fruits close to the soil, rot rot occurs.

In such cases, lime should be applied to the calcium deficiency, the surface of the soil should be covered with mulch (burnt animal manure, compost, stalk, straw, etc.).

PRUNING IN TOMATO CULTIVATION:

In open field tomato cultivation, pole tomatoes are suspended and picked to obtain quality products.

SEATING:

Taking the shoots formed at the junction of the stem and the main leaves is called taking seats.

The first seat collection starts when the plants are given herec and repeated every 10-15 days.

Benefits of getting a seat:

1- Maturation starts earlier.

2- A small number of coarser and more smooth fruits are obtained.

3- Maintenance and especially combat can be done easily and quickly harvesting works, the cost is reduced.

TIP:

Breaking the top slider of the plant over the two leaves of the last cluster to be left is called tip picking.

HARVEST:

Tomatoes grown in the field have 80-100 days from seed sowing to harvest and 60-80 days from seedling to harvest.

Table tomatoes are harvested in different maturity periods and different periods according to the distance of the market to be sent.

Quality fruit, round and smooth shape, appropriate size (6-8 fruits per kg),

color, core houses should be small and small, less nucleation, the slippery liquid in the core houses should not be green, the thickness and elasticity of the fruit peel to be able to withstand the road, fruit should not crack, full and abundant fleshiness, mature tomatoes should not be green around the stalk pit.

Tomato diseases and pests