Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

ARTICHOKE BREEDING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Artichoke is a winter vegetable grown in warm climates. Artichoke cultivation is very cold and does not like heat. If temperatures fall below 0 ° C in winter, significant damage to leaves and heads occurs. At temperatures above 20 ° C the growth slows down and above 25 ° C the growth stops completely.

The head hardens and the quality decreases in hot and dry conditions. The first frost in the regions where artichoke is produced also causes significant damages.

Formation of early and turfan product is prevented in early varieties. In the spring, arid and hot weather conditions, especially in late canned varieties, the heads remain small, reduce the brittleness, causes rancidity and fiber.

It starts with increasing temperature and immediately goes into flowering and yield decreases.

The warm and humid climatic conditions prevailing in Aegean, Marmara and Mediterranean regions are very suitable for artichoke cultivation. The optimum development temperature is 15-18 ° C. In addition, good air humidity and irrigation conditions should be provided.

SOIL REQUEST IN ARTICULAR CULTURE

Artichoke is a perennial plant because it enjoys drin-rich, humus-rich and well-drained soils. It does not like very light, sandy or very heavy soils.

In light sandy soils, yielding earlier yields and earliness is the most important disadvantage, as the heads are small and the yield is reduced, and earliness is the most important disadvantage.

Artichoke cultivation in this type of soil should be very good irrigation. In heavily soils, perennial roots are decomposed without air. The soil pH for artichoke should be 6.0-6.5.

The amount of organic matter in the soil should be around 2%. South slope plots can be used successfully in early artichoke production due to early heating.

In artichoke cultivation, fertilization is carried out in two different periods. Since it is a perennial vegetable, first fertilization before plantation is very important. In the second period, after deep soil cultivation in the plant development period, 4-5 tonnes of burnt farm manure is given per hectare and mixed to the soil depth of 30-40 cm.

In addition, 15-20 kg nitrogen, 30-40 kg phosphorus and 15-20 kg potassium fertilizer should be given per decare before the plant. After this basic fertilization, the plant is installed.

STEM IN ARTICULTURE

Artichoke has a strong root structure. Since it is a perennial plant, it forms a black rhizome that thickens and becomes woody during the year it grows under the ground.

It consists of flesh side and fringe roots on rhizomes. Side and fringe roots are usually spread to a depth of 50 cm soil.

In light soil conditions, it was determined that these roots can go down to 1.5 m. There are adventitious eyes on the rhizome.

It consists of shoots and leaves from the eyes.

The storage materials formed in the leaves accumulate in rizmon and allow the perennial plants to come and continue their lives in years. Rhizome survives under the soil in a waterless environment between May and August.

In case of watering, it develops by driving again.

BODY IN ARTICULTURE

Artichoke body can take 50-200 cm length. The body is round and has longitudinal stripes. Green color is dominant in the body and this color turns purple because it forms anthocyanins in some varieties. Leaves are arranged alternately on the stem.

The plant can form 2-5 side branches from leaf seats. The main stem and side branches end with a flower tray.

10-15 different bodies can be formed from an artichoke hearth, but 2-3 of them are allowed to develop in order to increase the quality and efficiency.

Artichoke Growing Leaf

The leaves have a very different structure. Artichoke leaves can reach 50-80 cm in length. They can be long and oval in shape, lightly split or multi-split.

Leaf edges in some varieties may be fragmented, indented protruding (native artichoke), as well as in some varieties can be fragmented, indented protruding (indigenous artichoke), or in some varieties may be smooth and broad-footed (gum artichoke).

The top of the leaves are flat, gray-green, the lower faces are covered with white fine hairs and are gray.

HEAD IN ARTICULAR BREEDING

Başa unda head artichoke oluş formed at the end of the main shoot in an artichoke hearth is called “arm artichoke baş. Although it varies according to the varieties, the diameter of an artichoke head varies between 3-15 cm and the weight varies between 200-700 g.

The head can be long oval, long-oval, oval shouldered, round and flat. There are important differences between the varieties in terms of head size. In some varieties the head diameter is 5 cm, while in others it can be 10-15 cm.

Head height varies between 6-13 cm. Brachy leaves of the head can also be long-narrow or short-wide.

In some varieties, the tip of the brachet leaf is prickly. In some varieties, the brachet leaves are arranged on top of each other, while some shows a loose structure.

Brachte leaves are generally larger than the width and triangular in shape. The brachte leaves on the outer side of the head are dark green and the inner ones are light-green.

On the other hand, in some varieties, the braided leaves may be violet-purple in color.

Artichoke varieties grown in our country show different characteristics depending on consumption type. Although it is not a well-known vegetable among the countries of the world, varieties intended for consumption are being developed.

The varieties grown in our country and their characteristics are summarized.

Gum artichoke:

It is a very early variety that grows widely in İzmir, Çeşme and Karaburun sides of Aegean region. It is also produced in the Mediterranean region. Medium size, tight and slightly creates long head.

It is suitable for fresh consumption and is eaten on the flower table with brachet leaves. The flower tray is not very wide. The typical feature of the variety is that the leaves are not fragmented and the edges are flat.

Domestic artichoke:

Grows in the Aegean and Mediterranean regions. The leaves are fragmented and the heads are smaller and flattened than the gum artichokes. The plants of this variety lie late to yield and form a smaller and flattened head.

On the other hand, the similarities between Chios and native artichokes in terms of morphological strengthens the thesis that these two varieties are probably the same.

Because in the perennial aquaculture made with chewing gum type, it is observed that native artichoke plants, which are noticeable with increasing leaf formations in the plants over the years, are split-leaved and late to yield.

Different types of plants which are seen as a result of a unidirectional change in chewing gum type and having characteristics differentiated from chewing gum type with yield behaviors as well as morphological characteristics are called “native artichoke..

Bayrampaşa artichoke:

It is a kind of table and canning that grows in Istanbul and Bursa region of Marmara region.

This variety is quite large and flattened headed at the same time carries a large flower tray. Being a late variety reduces the consumption rate. Coarse flower tray is suitable for canning.

Apart from these varieties, some clones obtained as a result of some selection studies and some varieties originating from abroad are used as material in new breeding studies although they do not find wide production areas.

FLOWER IN ARTICULTURE

The head of the artichoke, which is considered a vegetable, forms the flower of the plant. The consumed part is a flower bud. The flowers are erselik and the head carries 600-1200 flowers. The flowers are purple-red.

Flowering starts from the outside of the flower table and proceeds towards the center.

One flower completes flowering in 4-5 days. This flower bud has a large number of braided leaves. Brackle leaves vary in size depending on the varieties of the flower tray.

The main consumed part of this table has one or two rows of purple-purple flower petals at the edges.

In the middle, there is a collection of flowers consisting of male and female flowers. If the artichoke head is not harvested, these petals develop and come out of the brachte leaves and become purple-purple. The center of the table is surrounded by feathers. Seeds are formed at the head end of these feathers.

Seeds ripen 35-40 days after fertilization.

SEED AND GRASS PROPERTIES IN ARTICULAR CULTURE

After the pollination and fertilization of the artichoke flower is completed, both the braided leaves and the petals begin to turn white. The feathery structure of the male and female organs dries and seeds form on the table.

Seeds are dark brown, black-purple in color and stringy. Hard-structured seeds can be 5-7 mm long and 4-6 mm thick. There are 15-25 seeds per gram.

Seeds retain their germination properties for 4-6 years. The optimum germination temperature of the seeds is 20-30 ° C.

Seeds that require dark conditions for germination complete germination in 12-14 days. Artichoke seeds are often used in breeding and obtaining new varieties.

Common production mode is the production with bottom shoots.

Artichoke plants growing in Aegean Region for 9 months between September and May are left to rest for 3 months. If the plants are not allowed to rest, they will begin to shrink, yield and quality will decrease.

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

SOIL PREPARATION, PLANTING, PLANTING AND MAINTENANCE WORKS IN ARTICULTURE

Since the artichoke occupies the soil where it is grown for a long time, deep cultivation of the land is very beneficial before plantation is established.

After this deep processing a few days, the aeration soil is thinned with Disk-Harrow and planting areas are prepared.

Artichoke proliferation is mainly done vegetatively. However, it can also be produced with seed in breeding and developing new varieties.

As a result of some studies made today, cultivated with seed varieties and seed plants in Israel and France.

In seed production, seedlings should be grown first.

For this purpose, the seeds are usually planted in mortar-filled pots or tubes in March-April. 2-3 seeds are planted in each pot. 1 or 2 plants growing from germinated seeds are left in pots and necessary maintenance work is done.

Seedlings developed in that year are removed from the pots and planted in their places in March-April the following year.

Vegetative propagation of artichoke can be done in two ways:

Production with bottom shoots

Production with nozzles

This is the production of two vegetative production with dip shoots commonly used.

Production with bottom shoots

In our country, the root shoots are planted and planted in the field.

In this form of production, they generally benefit from the plant quarries in artichoke plantations which have homogeneous plant characteristics and which do not show an opening.

In March-April, the plants in the selected quarries are carefully opened at a depth of 10-12 cm and the bottom shoots are cut with a sharp knife or anchor.

After a light leaf cleaning on these shoots, the root sore diameter of the bottom shoots is 2.0-2.5 cm which increases the rooting rate. The importance of irrigation is very important in rooting the bottom shoots.

Sprinkler irrigation, if possible, affects the development of bottom shoots positively. Irrigation hoe and fertilize if necessary until the beginning of June.

If the bottom shoots planted in March 5-6 genuine leaves in plants and a well-developed root structure is provided.

From this stage, the rooting parcel is cut off and the plants enter the resting period. The rooting parcel left to itself until the beginning of August is given to the rooting parcel left to the beginning of August and it is waited for 2-3 days by giving wake up water at the beginning of August.

When the roots undergo a resting period, they take the wake-up water into action and put the sleepy eyes on them.

When these shoots appear on the soil, they are carefully removed with a shovel and planted in their original places.

Bottom shoots are generally planted at distances of 1.00x60-70 cm.

In the field prepared for planting, furrows are opened with a distance of 1 m and planting is made in the pits that are opened to the depth of dismantling of the bottom shoots with 60-70 cm distance to the neck points of these furrows.

Immediately after planting is given in the form of life water release.

Bottom shoots are taken from the root plant without rooting planting can be done in the original location. However, in this way the bottom shoots are not rooted in the production after planting is very dry and cavities occur in the field in places.

Even though these gaps are tried to be filled by irrigation, there is no homogenous development between the plants and labor costs increase. Because of this negativity, it is most recommended to plant rooted artichoke bottom shoots in their original places.

Bottom shoots planted in the middle of August develop rapidly if necessary maintenance work is done and they are mostly formed in the year and start to yield. Especially in this type of production made in early varieties early yield greatly increases.

Production with nozzles

Artichoke is a form of production that is made by using the nozzles that will form new shoots on the subsoil body. Body parts carrying eye are used in production.

Old artichoke plantations of 5-8 cm in diameter and 10-15 cm in length, taken from the subsoil trunks containing one or two breasts are either planted in their original places, or rooting cushions are transferred to their original place.

The most important disadvantage of the production with nozzles is the inability to make selections, especially in varieties showing variations. Since it is not understood whether the nozzles taken in the leafless period show opening, the plants obtained from this production may not show homogeneous properties.

In order to avoid this drawback, the plants should be marked during the leafy period.

In this production form, instead of the body parts containing the nozzle, only the large-looking nozzles can be separated from the subsoil body and planted in their original places after rooting again.

Maintenance works

In order to ensure good plant development and regular yield in artichoke production, maintenance works should be done on time and on-site.

Artichoke Cultivation

Rooted or rootless bastards after the planting in the main place in the developmental period between the rows and weeds are made to clean the soil and to remove the weed.

Hoeing is done 2-3 times according to the season. In the early stages of development, after 2-3 hoeing operations, the fast growing plants cover the soil surface, so that other hoeing operations are needed.

There is no k.

IRRIGATION IN ARTICULAR CULTURE

Artichoke is a plant that requires a lot of water in the development and growth period. In the regions where it is grown, it requires regular and sufficient amounts of water from the beginning of August until the beginning of the precipitation and wake-up water.

In winter, the necessary water is usually supplied from rainfall in our country. Watering should be done especially if the rainfall is insufficient during the harvest period.

In dehydrated plants, yield and quality decrease. Irrigation is usually done to furrow irrigation. Heavy water should not be excessive in character. Excess water causes root rot.

During plant development periods after planting, it is necessary to fertilize with organic and mineral fertilizer according to plant development status and head quality.

Depending on the soil analysis, it is recommended to use 15 kg / da N, 10 kg / da P2O5 and 15 kg / da K2O per year for artichoke plantation on average.

Fertilizers can be given to furrows or hearths. It is recommended to give 3-4 kg / burnt farm manure to the quarries in autumn.

It is also recommended to fertilize 6-10 g N, 5-10 g P2O5 and 10-15 g K2O per kiln. N ’li fertilizer should be given again in 3 different periods.

QUARRY CLEANING IN ARTICULAR BREEDING

In the artichoke production, the hearth cleaning is usually done once in autumn. After the wake-up water has been given, a large number of bottom slides of the sleeper eyes in the subsoil root system need to be cleaned and diluted.

In the autumn period, the quarries are opened and the subsoil body is reached and two or three of the most developed bottom shoots are left, the others are cut off and discarded.

Opened stove is given a shovel burnt barn manure and filling the throat is done again. January cleaning can be done a second time in spring if some years are required.

Again, in the spring, a large number of quarries opened from the bottom of the weak shoots are cleaned. If possible, manure is given again and the throat is filled.

SUMMER CLEANING IN ARTICULAR CULTURE

In the spring, when the air gets warm and the temperature rises above 25 ° C, the heads of artichoke are cartified and lose their consumption value. After this period, the plantation water is cut off and the plants are allowed to dry.

Growing on the plants starts to bloom and form seeds and the plants are allowed to dry. The plants begin to flourish, bloom and form seeds, and the plants then dry out.

In the Aegean region, this usually occurs in mid-July. In this period, the above-ground parts of the dried plants are cut with the help of a sharp anchor ax or sickle. During this cutting process, the residues of the plant are cleaned by raking.

No further action is taken on the plantation until the wake-up water is given.

Artichoke Cultivation Maturity Harvest and Storage

The maturity of artichokes varies according to the intended use and usage. Maturity periods are different according to fresh consumption and canning.

While the tray is expected to take the full size of the varieties to be preserved, the harvest type is taken as basis for the artichokes to be consumed without waiting for the hardening of the brackets.

The portion of the artichoke, which is considered to be a vegetable, is the immature flower tray and the brachets on it. The fleshy parts of the brachet leaves on the head are consumed.

Since the end portions of the brach leaves on the outer parts of the head are fibrated, the fleshy bottoms are consumed, while all of the fresh brach leaves inside the head can be consumed.

The most important criterion used in the definition of maturity in artichoke is that the head does not grow too much and does not grow.

In addition, it is another maturity criterion that the handle carrying the head is not hardened and is slightly flexible. Another criterion is that closed leaves are important for unopened fresh maturity.

In extreme maturity, the card starts, the table and the braces cellulose, fibrous structure occurs. The brached leaves are opened and big losses occur in the defeat of the head.

Artichoke plantation reaches maximum yield after 3 years and remains at maximum yield for 10-12 years. After that there will be significant reductions in yield.

When the artichoke heads are large enough, they are harvested by cutting them with a sharp knife with the handle 15-20 cm below the heads.

The harvested product is also offered to the market in a well protected basket wooden or cardboard box.

Artichoke heads should never be in contact with water after harvesting. If no harvested measures are taken, it loses its freshness.

Artichoke heads can be stored in cold stores at 0 ° C and 90-95% humidity for 3-6 weeks.

PRODUCTION IN ARTICULAR CULTURE

Yield in artichoke is usually expressed as head menstruation. Because in marketing, instead of kg, marketing is done in pieces.

As it can be understood from the cultivation section, when planting with a distance of 100x60-70 cm in a decare area, approximately 1650 plants are planted. Each artichoke usually leaves 2 shoots.

From each shoot one parent, 2-3 side arm artichoke If it is accepted that it is obtained 2-6 pieces from a hearth and 3300-8000 pieces of artichoke from one decare area.

SEED PRODUCTION IN ARTICULAR CULTURE

Since artichoke is propagated vegetatively, seed production is not very important today.

However, with the development of seed varieties produced in some countries in recent years, seed production may also be important in the future.