Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

PLUM GROWING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

In winter, cold-resistant plums resistance to cold starts to decrease with the warm weather in spring.

Sensitivity increases in flowering period.

The closed buds seen at the tip of the petal in the plums are -3.1 to -1.1 C; blossomed flowers -2.2 to 0.6 C; young fruits are known to be based on -1.1 to -0.6 ° C.

In terms of winter rest period, European plums require a cooling time of more than 1000 hours below +7.2 ° C. In Japanese plums, this period is up to 600 hours.

Plum plant nutritional deficiencies, symptoms, elimination, fertilization

Plum plant nutrient deficiency, symptoms, removal, fertilization

In case of deficiency, please use one of our products or search for the following.

To avoid deficiencies, use regularly as the first leaves are up to the sparrow beak.

ZINC DEFICIENCY IN Plum Cultivation

Typical signs of zinc deficiency in plum are narrowed, shrunken leaves and rosette formation.

The reason for this measurement is that the lengths of the nodes are considerably shortened.

Leaf edges sometimes become wavy.

Yellow leaf mosaic stains occur between the veins, with the vascular edges of the leaf surface remaining green.

If deficiency is not too severe only affects the leaves, shoot development continues normally.

However, if deficiency is severe, shoot development stops completely.

The number of fruit buds in shoots decreases or disappears completely.

Blackening is seen in the fruit meats of stone fruits.

Plum trees show great differences between them in terms of sensitivity to zinc deficiency.

POTASSIUM DEFICIENCY IN Plum Growing

In plum potassium deficiency, brown and brown chlorosis forms on the edges of the leaves and these regions dry out.

In contrast, the leaves can remain on the tree for a long time.

Fruits become small and pale, thick rind. The amount of sugar is low and the taste is sour.

In the lack of potash in the plum trees, the yellowing of the leaves starts, then the brown leaves completely dry and die.

In dry years, the lack of potash is more harmful. Potassium is an element that affects trees photosynthesis, starch and sugar making.

Potassium prevents periodicity because it plays a role in the formation of flower eyes.

Nitrogen Deficiency in Plum Cultivation

In plum nitrogen deficiency, leaves are small, narrow, light green color.

Old leaves can be yellowish orange colored or reddish purple colored and shed early.

Leaf stems appear to form a narrow angle to the branch, are thin and short, and if the deficiency is very severe, the stems die.

Shoot development is weak.

The number of buds and flowers is low and the fertilization time of the flowers is short.

Fruits are colored before ripening.

BORON DEFICIENCY IN Plum Growing

Plum boron deficiency causes similar damage.

The flower suddenly fades as if it is damaged by the cold and becomes black brown.

But they do not fall as they stand on the branch for a while.

 Although frost damages create the same appearance, flowers affected by frost are immediately shed.

In case of severe deficiency, leaf output is delayed.

Vegetative growth points die, shoots become short, leaves are small and distorted shape.

However, chlorosis is not seen in the leaves.

Plum and pear fruits have large deformations and fungus inside and outside.

Fruits are smaller than normal and sometimes crack.

External fungus caused by boron deficiency should not be confused with bitter speckle disease caused by calcium deficiency.

Bitter speckle occurs on the branch either very late or more often after harvest, during storage.

IRON DEFICIENCY IN Plum Growing

In the case of iron deficiency in plum, the symptom is called chlorosis or jaundice.

Araz shows itself mostly on chalky and nutrient-poor soils. The land intensifies especially during rainy seasons.

In cases where chlorosis is caused by iron deficiency, the leaf veins are green, whereas the inter-vein tissue is yellow.

The symptom starts on young leaves and progresses to old leaves.

At the edges of such leaves, reddish or brown drying occurs over time.

Due to the disruption of photosynthesis, the development slows down, yield decreases and as a result the tree may die.

Chlorose is caused by the excess lime taken into the plant and the free iron contained in the plant.

Iron, which acts as a catalyst in the formation of chlorophyll, cannot perform this task when held by lime.

MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY IN Plum Growing

 Plum magnesium deficiency, especially in the old leaves of long shoots, between the veins, irregularly shaped, light green, yellow, sometimes grayish green spots occur.

In some cases, the streaks extend to the edges of the leaves.

Spots rapidly turn into reddish-brown necrosis evil.

The leaves then fade, curl, dry and shed early.

Fruits become tasteless and odorless.

Delicious variety Plums are very sensitive to magnesium deficiency.

PHOSPHOROUS DEFICIENCY IN Plum Cultivation

In plum phosphorus deficiency leaves are small, dark green color, bronze or purple stained.

Leaf stems are reddish in color and they stand upright so that the connections with the branch are narrow.

It has a sparse leaf system.

Dark brown necrosis occurs on the edges of old leaves.

Early foliage is seen.

The number of flowers and fruits is low.

Fruits remain small and shed before ripening.

Fruits are dull, dull in color, hard and have a dense texture and are tasteless.

If the amount of phosphorus is excessive compared to nitrogen, the fruit flesh is still coarse-textured.

MANGANESE DEFICIENCY IN Plum Cultivation

Symptoms of manganese deficiency in plum cultivation are similar to each other.

Slight and moderate deficiency, young leaves, slight discoloration between the veins is revealed.

This discoloration is very light, but is visible when the leaf is exposed to light.

If the deficiency is more severe, the discoloration increases and leaves the web appearance.

In the later stage, to cover the surface of the leaf whitish yellow spots.

CALCIUM DEFICIENCY IN Plum Growing

The removal of calcium ions from the soil solution is carried out by means of the root tips.

Therefore, factors such as low temperature, insufficient aeration that prevent the formation of new roots can prevent calcium intake and cause deficiency.

Therefore, it is difficult to reach the fruit by transporting the previously absorbed calcium in the phloem during fruit formation.

If calcium ions are taken from the soil in the fruit death cycle and the fruit does not reach the fruit by xylem, calcium deficiency damages can be seen in the fruits.

The appropriate method for preventing the deficiencies of calcium deficiency seen in fruits is spraying Ca directly to the fruit leaf.

However, this process should be carried out during the growth period of the fruits after fertilization and repeated several times.

In this way, damage to the fruits due to calcium deficiency can be prevented.

 Important note:

Always use Wet spreader glue if your irrigation or spray water has a pH of 8 - 8.5 every time you spray your garden. (Soil and water pH in many regions of our country is up to 8- 8.5 or even up to 9.) All drugs produced are produced according to the pH range of 6-7. Even the best quality medicines lose their effect by up to 30%, from 6 to 15 minutes. Buddha will reduce the effect of your medicine.

For this reason, our advice to your holder, tank or back pump,

TANK RANKING (DO NOT BREAK THE RANKING)

1 PH DECREASING ADHESIVE  It reduces the pH of the spraying water and prevents the deterioration of the drug. Once the medicines are applied to the plant, it allows the drug to spread to the leaf and prevents it from flowing through the leaves.
2 PLANT FOOD Provides smooth and balanced nutrition of the plant. It makes the fruits attractive, bright, colorful, large, durable, hard, heavy, tasty and pleasantly fragrant.
3 INSECTICIDES Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, according to the pest period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
4 FUNGUSİT MUSHROOM (After mixing in a separate containerZarar) Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, depending on the disease period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
5 OTHER Other trace elements recommended by technical staff.  

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

LIME SOLVENT It should be used in calcareous soils at the beginning of the season. Lime wrapped around capillary roots destroys the creamy layer. Soil bound iron, phosphorus and phosphates are released in the soil, the plant uses them. you do not need to use iron and phosphorus fertilizers repeatedly. 1 Kg drip irrigation per hectare
PLANT FOOD First application before flowering,
second application in fruit attitude,
The third application is done 45 days before harvest
Two applications with 300 gr / 100 lt water in all periods required.
200-300 cc
ZINC Apply when eyes explode and flowering is over. The most important time to apply the fruit is collected (before the leaves fall yet) configure. It allows the accumulation of zinc in the eyes of next spring and healthy new shoots. 125-150 cc
DRIP IRRIGATION NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, BALANCED, POTASSIUM It should be used regularly every semester. NPK of the plant must be met 2-3 kg
ORGANIC Organic based drip irrigation and release irrigation fertilizer. Fifteen days apart. One empty, one full watering or split quantities full watering Dönüme
5-7 kg

Foliar fertilizer should be used in every application. Leaf fertilizers prevent plants from getting stressed. It meets the micro element needs of plants. Improves fruit set and quality of fruits.

The amount of fertilizer to be given to plum orchards varies according to the tillage procedure, the character of the soil, the growth power of the tree, the age, and the amount of crop taken.

Plum Diseases and Pests

coryneum beijerinckii
.
cytospora spp.
.
monilinia fructigena
.
taphrina deformans
.
pseudo- monas syringae pv.
armillaria mellea
.
taphrina pruni
.
pseudo- monas amygdali
agrobacterium tumefaciens
tranzschelia pruni-spinosae
Acarina
.
.
parthenolecanium corni
.
polyphylla spp.
.
hoplocampa spp.
.
quadras- pidiotus perniciosus
Aphididae
.
.
Archips rosanus L
.
Stigmella malella
.
zeuzera pyrina
.
euproctis chrysorrhoea
.
hyphantria cunea
.
stephanitis pyri
.
epidiaspis leperii
.
cydia funebrana
.
eurytoma amygdali
.
sphaerole- canium prunastri
pseudaula- caspis pentagona
Scolytus rugulosus
.
capnodis spp.
.
Spilonota ocellana
.
epicometis (=tropinota) hirta)
Anthonomus pomorum L
.
anarsia lineatella
.
cydia molesta
.
plum pox potyvirus (ppv))
purunus necrotik ring spot vırus
prune dwarf ilarvirus (pdv)

It is best to determine the amount of fertilizer to be given by soil and leaf analysis.

Before planting saplings in plum orchards, a basic fertilization must be carried out. After planting, the garden should be fertilized every year.

Plum trees need to take the necessary phosphorus from the soil with strong roots. Phosphorus is used to grow the tree and increase the yield.

Due to the fact that it is a little moving element, it should be paid attention to give phosphorus fertilizers to the area where the roots are located.

The amount of fertilizer to be given to plum trees varies depending on the nutrients in the soil, the type of soil, the age of the trees, the amount of crop taken, the ecological region and the development of the trees.

Determining the amount of fertilizer to be given according to leaf and soil analysis is the most appropriate method.

Nitrogenous fertilizers should be given before the beginning of spring development at the end of winter.

Plum trees respond to both sulfate and nitrate form of nitrogen.

The price factor should also be considered when selecting fertilizer. However, it is necessary to avoid using ammonium sulphate in soils with pH below 6.5.

Urea should be used in soils with soil pH below 5.0. Nitrogenous fertilizer is not recommended after mid-June.

Late applications reduce the formation of color in the fruit, in the autumn shoots cause prolongation and increase the damage from winter cold.

Phosphorus and potash fertilizers should be given at the beginning of winter, between rows of fruit trees, and young trees around crown projections.

In addition to chemical fertilizers, 50 kg of well-burned farm manure (for fruit-bearing trees) should be given every 2 years. Green fertilization is also useful.

SINGLE TYPE AND TIME IN Plum Cultivation

If you want to have a few varieties in the garden when you want to set up a garden with self-productive varieties, each kind should be placed in the garden in a block.

It is obligatory to plant the varieties in a way that dusts each other when a garden is to be established with partially fertile or sterile varieties.

The pollinator ratio should be 1/9. If more than two varieties are to be installed, the varieties should be arranged in 2 rows and 3 rows.

While selecting the most suitable pollinator variety, good care should be taken to ensure that the flowering times are suitable to pollinate each other, that the flower powders have high germination power and that the varieties that will produce a high percentage of fruit set as a result of mutual pollination.

The number of pollinators should be adjusted according to whether the pollinator type is a suitable type for economic and marketing purposes.

If a suitable type is used as a pollinator, 2 rows of main types and 1 row of pollinators are sufficient. If a kind that is not suitable for production purpose has to be used as pollinator, 8 main trees and 1 pollinator should be established.

In addition, the use of more than one type of garden instead of a single type of enclosed garden should always be preferred because it affects the quantity and quality of fruit positively.

Seedlings can be planted in November-December in regions with mild winter and the most rainfall.

Planting can be continued until the beginning of the spring development cycle.

Planting is done at the beginning of the spring season in rainy or cold winter regions.

SOIL PROCESSING IN Plum Cultivation

By using meadow plants in rainy areas, a permanent cover plant is kept in the gardens.

They grow when the cover plant grows. In areas with low rainfall, the plum orchards are constantly kept clean.

In such areas gardens are sown in the autumn.

When it comes to soil pan in spring it is smeared for the second time in late February or March. After the third version in May, irrigation channels are opened.

Bottoms of trees are treated with hoe. If the gardens are grazed in summer due to irrigation, weed form should be preferred instead of plowing the soil in order not to disturb the irrigation channels.

Deep plowing should be avoided as the plum roots are spread close to the soil surface.

IRRIGATION IN Plum Growing

In areas with annual rainfall exceeding 750 mm, plums can be grown without irrigation.

 Irrigation is mandatory in places where the amount of rainfall falls below this figure.

Since plums are fringe rooted and roots develop superficially, their water requirements are higher than deep rooted fruit species.

Among the present species, P. cerasifera species are most resistant to drought.

In the Aegean region, plum orchards are irrigated every 8-12 days from the second half of May to autumn rains.

Irrigation is done in various ways. Irrigation furrow, bowl, pan method or furrow-bowl, combinations are used in one of the forms.

The irrigation system is selected according to the nature of the soil and the wealth of the water source.

Drip irrigation and mini sprinkler systems are also applied today.

It was entered.

STOCKHOLES IN Plum Cultivation

Rootstock on the pen; tree shape and size, adaptation to various soil and climatic conditions, crop laying and crop quality and quantification, affect the resistance to various diseases and pests.

Rootstocks used in fruit cultivation are divided into two groups as generative and vegetative depending on the way they are produced.

For plums, rootstock and clone rootstocks of various plums and peach, apricot and almond rootstock are used.

FRUIT Dilution in plum cultivation

Japanese plum and some plum in one flower buds 1-3 flowers occur because of overload.

Dilution is done by hand or chemical substances.

  June after the casting is applied. In others, it should be done when the young fruit breaks down.

Green plums consumed as green fruit in the trees are harvested intermittently each fruit collection, dilution is a substitute.

Dilutions of plums with chemicals were not as successful as in plums. Some of the chemical substances are compounds with DNOC.

Elgetol, which has this effective substance, is sprayed on trees during the flowering period of 70-80%.

Furthermore, lime sulfur was also tested for this purpose.

This chemical substance is excreted in the trees at the 6-7% concentration and 50-60% flowering stage.

HARVEST

Best picking maturity; when the fruits are full in the tree, they get full color, full sweet, and the meat is crisp.

Maturity progresses on the main tree is the fruit to be collected for nearby markets.

For remote markets, harvesting should be done earlier.

The harvest time in plums is determined by looking at the change in the color of the upper and the ground, the hardness of the flesh, the amount of dry matter dissolved in the water, or the time taken to harvest from the full flower.

Dried plum fruits are extremely ripe on trees and blow some water and are harvested after they are wrinkled.

Some of the wrinkled plums fall to the bottom of the trees. These are collected from places.

The fruit remaining in the tree is harvested manually or by machine.

STORAGE

The plums are most conveniently stored at 0 ° C or -0.5 ° C.

At this temperature it is possible to store European plums for 3-4 weeks and Japanese plums for 7-8 weeks.

It is possible to store plums, which darken at low temperatures, in controlled atmospheric conditions at 4-8 C for the periods indicated above.