Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

BEAN CULTIVATION Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Bean seed germinates at 15-20 ° C, slows down below 15 ° C, and below 10 ° C and above 35 ° C, little or no germination occurs. The output occurs after 7-10 days at optimum humidity and temperature after planting.

Germination slows below 15 ° C. The output time at low temperatures can be 20-25 days. Seedling status in beans is epigeal.

The vegetation period in beans is between 70-140 days. The vegetation period varies according to the ecological conditions of the region as well as whether the plant is winding and stunted, early or late.

It is over 10-15 days for my flowers in scrub varieties, 20-25 days for side wrappers and over 30 days for wrap varieties.

The vegetation period for dwarf types is 70-80 days, 130-140 days for wrapper types and 80-90 days for semi-wrapper types.

If soil moisture is not enough, the duration of my flowers is shortened and my flowers are reduced. High temperatures and low humidity prevent flowering germination, causing flowers to fall out.

In particular, flowers are poured above 30 ° C and yield is considerably reduced. This situation can be prevented by early cultivars and early sowing.

The optimum temperature for flowering is 20-25 ° C. During the ripening period the air should be dry. Temperatures below 10 ° C prevent grain ripening.

Beans are loamy, PH 7-8 which grows well on fertile soils with no salinity and alkali problems. Beans have high zinc demand.

Uromyces Appendi- culatus
B Yellow Mosaic Potyvirus
Fusarium Spp.
.
Pseudomonas Savastanoi Pv. 
Colletotrichum Linde- muthianum)
Xanthomonas Axonopodis Pv.
Bean Common Mosaic virus
Phytophthora Capsici
.
Ascochyta Pinodella
.
Peronospora Lentis
.
Ascochyta Rabiei
.
Coleoptera: Bruchidae
.
Etiella Zinckenella
.
Panonychus ulmi
Koch.
Amicta Oberthuri
.
Dolycoris baccarum
.
Apion Arrogan
.
Gryllotalpa Gryllotalpa
.
Spodoptera Littoralis
.
Polyphago-tarsonemus Latu
Dysaphis plantaginea
.
 Cicadellidae Empoasca decipiens
Heliothis Armigera, Heliothis V
Delia Platura
.
Phyllotreta, Epithrix Hirtipennis
Liriomyza Trifolii, Liriomyza

BREEDING TECHNIQUE

The soil, which is applied at a depth of 20-25 cm in autumn, is prepared with second tillage tools such as disc harrow and rake in spring. Weed war can be done with chemicals that can be used before planting and exit.

In recent years, some varieties such as Şehirali-90 (Horoz-Bodur), Yunus-90 (Horoz-Bodur), Göynük -98 (Horoz-Bodur), Akman-98 (Dermason-Yan wrapper) have been developed in our country.

However, the cultivation of local varieties in population characteristics is still widespread today.

For the production of dry beans, sowing should be done in the Central Anatolia region from the last week of April to the beginning of May and in Eastern Anatolia from mid-May to the beginning of June and in the coastal regions in March.

The beans can be planted in a row or in a cooker manner. In dwarf and semi-winders, row sowing method is applied. In October, the range varies between 40-60 cm depending on the variety and cultivation conditions and 5-15 cm above the row.

The most suitable plant density in planting is 20-25 plants per m2 in dwarf types and 10-15 plants per m2 in semi-winders.

Turkey in studies conducted in different regions, 40x5 cm in dwarf varieties (Şehral, ​​1980) and 40x10 cm (Ozcan and Ozdemir, 1996, Akdag and Tayyar, 1995) has been identified as the most suitable plant density.

The beans can be planted in the plow line or in corn and cotton drills.

Beans are also planted as sprinklers in our country. In this case, the outlets are not uniform and more seeds are used. Bean planting method is especially used for vegetable production. Between the rows 70-80 cm, the row is 25-30 cm, 10-15 cm in diameter, 4-5 seeds are opened to the quarry.

After the exit, dilution is done in the furnaces. January method of planting, pole beans are applied.

In bean planting, the coarse seeds should be sown deeper, especially in light sandy soils, and small seeds should be planted close to the surface in heavy soils. Sowing depth is 5-10 cm in light soils and coarse seeds, 3.0 - 5.0 cm in heavy soils and small seeds.

The amount of seed varies depending on whether it is dwarf or wrapper, sowing frequency, sowing method and seed size. Small seed varieties 6-7 kg / da, medium sized varieties 7-10 kg / da and 10-12 kg / da seeds are used in row seeding.

Because beans, a legume plant, benefit from the free nitrogen of the air with the nodules on the roots, there is no need for excess nitrogen fertilization when the seeds with the bacteria are inoculated or if beans have been cultivated in that soil before.

In order to meet the requirement of the plant until the nodules in the roots become active, it is sufficient to give 2-3 kg / da pure nitrogen as base fertilizer.

Otherwise, 8-10 kg / da additional pure nitrogen fertilizer should be applied during seedling period. Also 6-7 kg / ha P2O5 should be applied with sowing.

Before planting, during soil preparation or as the best method, band a should be applied 3-5 cm away from the rows and 4-5 cm below the seed depth.

Fertilization with seed in the same order affects germination negatively. Top fertilization is not required.

When the bean has 4-5 leaves, it is hoeed by hand or goose foot type tools. In this way, the aeration of the soil against diseases is provided.

In bean farming, if necessary, watering is done during germination period.

It should be watered 1 or 2 times until flowering, in order not to cause root and stem rot after seedling period. Depending on climate and soil conditions.

may need to be watered 2-3 times during the sowing and seed forming periods.

Beans require a total of 300-500 mm of water. Bean furrow or sprinkler irrigation is done.

IRRIGATION

Ponds should be prevented in order to prevent diseases in irrigation.

Inadequate watering reduces the number of flowers and pod holding and grain size.

HARVEST

Harvest should be done when the beans turn yellow and the grains are hardened. In early harvest, the seeds remain contracted. In late harvest, the pods crack and seeds are poured. The harvest is done by hand or by cutting.

The harvested plants are dried in the field for a few days. Threshing is done in our country by pounding with sticks or passing over with small tractors.

However, these applications cause breakage of grains and loss of germination ability. In developed countries, harvesting and threshing is done with combined machines.

In this case, the moisture content in the grain should be 18-20%. Harvesting should be done in the morning when the air is humid in order to prevent the beans from cracking.

After harvesting, the product obtained is cleaned of unripe, wrinkled, insect damaging grains, broken grains, stone and soil fragments.

If the cleaned bean grains are stored under appropriate conditions, they maintain their nutritional value and viability for many years.

Suitable storage conditions for beans are when the moisture in the grain does not exceed 14%, the storage temperature does not exceed 10 ° C and the storage air humidity does not exceed 65%. In this case the seeds can be stored well for 1 year Storage temperature.

As the store moisture and grain moisture fall below the limits mentioned above, it is possible to store the bean seeds for 6-7 years without losing their vitality.

Low humidity ensures very low levels of respiration in the grain. If the respiration is excessive, rot and mold will appear in the grains.

Beans Diseases and Pests