Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

ROSE BREEDING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Roses prefer very fresh, argillaceous and organic - rich soils.

These soils adhere to the feet when they are moist, but dry very quickly, and are easily dry when they are not too dry and moist.

But in general, roses can grow on almost all garden soils.

However, they cannot grow only in soils with extreme conditions such as clay, sandy or very calcareous.

SOIL PREPARATION IN ROSE CULTIVATION

The soil should be prepared very well for roses to grow easily and quickly.

In case of new soils that have no production, deep processing is required.

In light soils dominated by sand, heavy fertilizers (Composite fertilizers, preferably cattle manure) give the best results.

LIGHT IN ROSE GROWING:

Roses like airy sunny places.

In open, greenhouse cultivation, beds located at the bottom of the wall in the south are not suitable for roses; because it becomes extremely hot and caustic.

If there is an obligation to grow roses in such places, the red varieties that are most affected by strong sunlight should be selected.

Climbing, spreading roses are ideal for these conditions. In addition, white and pink varieties can be selected.

Light is one of the most influential factors in the growth of plants grown in greenhouses. Since the light intensity is the highest in the summer, the rose cut is more in the summer.

Day length has no effect on the growth and flowering of roses.

In the researches, it was observed that additional lighting with high intensity (100 W) fluorescent lamps increased the rose production by 50-200%.

Especially in short stalk varieties, product increase is high.

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

TEMPERATURE IN ROSE CULTURE:

For many rose varieties, 16 ° C night temperature is suitable. On sunny days the temperature in the greenhouse can be 5-7 ° C higher.

At higher temperatures, the development time in roses is shortened, yield increases, but quality decreases (flower stem becomes smaller, stem becomes shorter).

Temperature control is very important at the beginning of newly planted roses.

Known as the critical period in roses, the bud needs to pass until the pea size, the temperature should be kept around 21 C, then should be reduced to 16 C.

In this way, flowers are obtained in less time.

Rose Diseases and Pests

Rose Mosaic Virus
Phragmidium mucronatum (Pers.)
Peronospara sparsa
.
Cryptos-
porella umbrina
Syrista- parreyssi Spin.
Ardis brunniventris (Hart.)
Agrilus Chrysoderes
.
Rhynchites hungaricus (Hbst.)
Partheno- lecanium spp.
Aurigena chlorana
.

HUMIDITY IN ROSE CULTIVATION:

Depending on the temperature inside the greenhouse, the relative humidity is kept at an appropriate level for the development of roses. For example, 60% relative humidity at 24 ° C is suitable.

Excess moisture increases the greenhouse diseases and moisture deficiency can adversely affect the development.

Water loss in plants increases, development stops and shoots shorten.

It is desirable to have low humidity (40-60%) in the greenhouse at night. This requires heating or a good ventilation system.

Under favorable moisture conditions, the stems are longer, the flowers and leaves are larger, hence the quality is improved. Frequent sprinkler irrigation (to the system) powdery mildew and black spot will be effective in spreading the disease is objectionable.

Carbon dioxide (CO2): It is an important substance used in the greenhouse roses together with water for photosynthesis.

As a result of photosynthesis plant growth and development increases. The normal CO2 gas in the air is about 300 ppm. If the amount of CO2 is increased in the greenhouses, the stems of the roses grow longer as photosynthesis will increase.

The buds are bigger, so the quality increases.

In addition to ventilation in greenhouses, the need for CO2 can be achieved by burning alcohol and propane in the greenhouse.

VENTILATION IN ROSE CULTIVATION:

Depending on the temperature and humidity of the greenhouses, ventilation should be performed when necessary. Ventilation should be done when the greenhouse temperature rises above 21 ° C. Greenhouse temperature and humidity are controlled by ventilation. In addition, CO2 and O2 required for plants are provided.

IRRIGATION IN ROSE CULTIVATION:

Adequate watering should be taken from planting in roses. Irrigation time and amount depends on the environmental conditions, soil structure, the development status of the plant, but in the period of exile and summer months roses need more water. After pruning, the need for water during flower cutting period and winter months is less.

The annual water requirement of a decare greenhouse can be calculated between 2000-2500 tons.

PLANTING AND PRUNING IN ROSE CULTIVATION

Planting:

The most suitable periodic planting of roses is between November and March.

But they can actually be planted from October 15 until the end of April. Planting in winter is unsuitable because of the unfavorable soil conditions.

If planting is done in late April, it is necessary to pay great attention to irrigation.

The mentioned planting times are valid for bare rooted roses. Now growers grow tubular roses which can be planted in all seasons, even in summer.

Planting of roses grown as cut flowers is very important in both horticulture and greenhouses.

For planting, pits having a depth of 60 cm and a diameter of 40 cm are opened in the soil field prepared as described above.

It is put into the bottom of the pit after the soil taken from the top is mixed with fertilizer. After that, it comes to making the roses ready for planting.

This is practically called the tuvalet root toilet “(planting pruning). Its purpose is to prune the root ends that have been damaged during removal.

Dead root tips are brown and cut with garden scissors to create yellow or white yellow color.

In the soil, around the cut parts of the roots around the wound tissue formed by a large number of radicals ensure that the rose is held firmly to the soil.

This attachment becomes even easier if the roots of the rose are immersed in clay soil, fresh fertilizer and water slurry before planting.

Parallel to this pruning in the roots, the ends of branches should be pruned. This method is especially recommended for all late plantings.

Planting pruning roses are placed in pits that have already been opened in such a way that the roots will not curl, maintain their natural condition and the grafting point will remain in the soil.

Extra-long roots can also be trimmed at the ends during pruning.

It is mixed with fertilizer and slowly put between the roots and after the pit is completely filled, a watering bowl is made and watered abundantly.

PRUNING IN ROSES:

There are four main reasons for pruning in roses.

1- Rejuvenation

2-Increasing Yield

3- Improving Quality

4- Forming

No matter how well the roses are taken care of every year, it is seen that the branches are not shortened and developed and dried up.

In this case, cutting the roses with the sharp tool above the vaccination point helps both to rejuvenate and to obtain fruitful and quality flowers.

Pruning in roses, where rejuvenation is out of the question and yield is good, is for the form. A good form requires “V” pruning.

Pruning time in roses is late winter or early spring.

Pruning in rose seedlings is done in three ways.

LONG PRUNING (SOFT PRUNING):

It takes place by cutting the branches from 510 to leave the eye.

This type of pruning is very strong, healthy developing roses, hybrid tea roses, hugging roses are applied.

SHORT PRUNING (HARD PRUNING):

From the bottom branches are pruned over 2-4 eyes. This type of pruning of young shoots to be strong and durable, flower branches are longer and stronger.

Most of the weak, weak, inefficient roses are pruned in this way.

MIXED PRUNING:

This is the pruning of the branches in rose seedlings by taking into consideration factors such as strength, thickness, length, age, yield and short according to location. Practically whatever the genus roses should be pruned as follows.

1st year out of 2 eyes

2nd year out of 3-4 eyes

3. year 5-6 out of eyes

4. year 2-3 over the eye

With this pruning, we will preserve the shape of roses and prolong their life.

Pruned seedlings should be immediately irrigated and diluted fertilizer should be given with irrigation.

Pruning in the cool of morning or evening between autumn-spring is appropriate to be done.

Picking Techniques in Roses

Seat Buds and Bud Purchase:

Roses generally form 1 or 2 thick branches and a large number of fine branches from the bottom. In quality rose cultivation, it is desirable for the plants to form a few thick branches from the bottom, which can be achieved with the “tip picking technique..

Newly planted roses, shoot development should be observed carefully after the beginning of development, when the shoots 2.5-3.0 cm second or third five-leafed leaves immediately above the end of the shoot by removing the "Early Picking" technique should be applied.

With this method, the resulting shoots have a thicker diameter, no small diameter shoots on the plant and the leaves on the shoots to grow to the largest size is provided.

Naturally growing strong, medium-sized rose shoots are allowed to grow until flower buds are seen, then cut under the top five leaf petals.

In this way, “Soft Tip Picking” technique is applied to ensure that the roses have a longer stem.

Uç Getting Hard Tip de in Roses:

This is also applied to obtain long-stemmed, high-quality roses. Shoots are plucked from the bottom of the two five-leaf petal.

Sprouting is carried out in order to keep the number of flower buds in the roses and consequently the number of flower buds under control. Because with the tip-taking second and third degree eyes are encouraged to shoot. While leaving the top point, the others are taken and the control is made.

In addition to the top bud on the flower stem, the roses also have a number of second-degree flower buds ranging from 2-4, depending on the variety. These chickpea size should be removed by hand when it comes to size. In this way, the development of the top bud is not prevented.

PRODUCT PROGRAMMING IN ROSE CULTIVATION:

Roses, generally a three-month hike from planting to cutting they need a master. It is important to program a product in order to adjust the yield to market conditions and to obtain alternate flowers at regular intervals. For this purpose, the pick-up time must be set with the sewing time. The time from tip pick to rose cut varies according to tip pick, time and variety.

In general, this period is 5-6 weeks in late spring or summer, but it increases to 8 weeks in winter. In addition, “soft-tip“ applicants are cut to 3-7 days longer than daha hard-tip ”applicants. In the meantime, temperature changes in the greenhouse must also be taken into account. On the other hand, the stem length of the rose is a factor affecting the cutting time. Long-stemmed roses need more time to mature. In addition, flowering can be delayed or accelerated by raising or lowering the night temperature by 4-5 C (up to 1 C per night).

FLOWER CUT IN ROSE BREEDING:

When a rose shoot is examined, there are 2-5 five-leafed leaves in the middle part of the shoot, and there are many leaflets and narrow leaflets just below and above them. Just below the rose bud, respectively; narrow, long leaflet, triple-leaf leaves and buds at the base of the first five-leafed leaves are pointed. The leaves beneath them are round. The eyes at the bottom of the narrow leaflets at the bottom of the shoot are flatter.

Knowing the status of the buds on the rose shoot is of great importance in flower cutting. If these buds are left to bloom, the pointed ones will produce short-stemmed roses, thus poor quality roses. In this respect, the flower petal should be cut from the point below the first five leaf petals (soft pick point). This will help the lower round buds to produce long-stemmed, high-quality roses in the future.

On the time of flower cutting, different species and varieties also play a role. The yellow varieties should be cut when they are more closed than the pink or red varieties, and the red or pink varieties should be cut as the outer petals begin to open.

STORAGE:

The cut roses should be put into warm water immediately and stored in stores at 4-5 C air temperature. If roses need to be stored longer (2 weeks), they should be kept between bırakmak1 C and 1 C. However, roses should not be put into water and stored in moisture and airtight containerZarars. After storage, the tip of the stems should be cut slightly and immersed in hot water at 27 C-30 C. In the meantime, it is recommended that the ambient temperature be 4-5 C.