Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

POPPY BREEDING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Poppy seeds can germinate at +4 0C when they find enough moisture in the soil. When soil temperature is lower, seeds remain germinated. It shows a good development at higher temperatures in autumn +4 0C.

Root system is well developed and plants with 6-8 rosette leaves spend the normal winter season without harm.

Plants caught in the period of delayed outflow, frost atria leaves are damaged by frost. Too cold in winter, long periods of frost in the soil can cause death in the first leaves of the plant, as well as can cause death in later stages.

It should not be forgotten that snow cover is a factor preventing the poppy plant from being damaged even at very low temperatures.

Poppy plant likes the sun and warmth. Morphine content in the capsule increases in places where the duration of the light is long or when the air passes open during the vegetation period.

The high morphine content in the poppy-grown Tasmania region of Australia can be explained by the length of the exposure time. The total temperature demand of the poppy plant during the growing period is 23-27 0C.

If low humidity is added to the high temperatures that occur during flowering, obstacles will arise in fertilization.

The decrease in fertilization results in a decrease in seed yield.

Considering the above, it is understood that the regions, especially the highlands, where the winters are very harsh and the summers cool, are not suitable for poppy cultivation.

The annual rainfall requirement of the poppy plant is 600-700 mm. 300-400 mm part of this rainfall during the growing period, it is ideal to be flowering.

Raining after flowering causes disruptions in fertilization, decreases seed yield and on the other hand causes diseases and especially mildew (Peronospora arborescens).

During the vegetation, the passage of the air off and the formation of high humidity causes the spread of diseases.

Rain during the full flowering period (early morning) prevents the petals from opening, gluing the flower petal to the top of the capsule, preventing foreign fertilization and causing seed loss.

Although poppy pile is a rooted plant, its side roots are developing poorly.

Full and strong rains can break down the leaves while the strong wind coming from rainfall or irrigation can knock down the plants.

Considering these issues, the throat filling process should be done well and the root throat should be strengthened. Preventing wind damage is possible with suitable sowing techniques.

Soil Requests

Poppy plant is not selective in terms of soil requirements and grows in almost all soil varieties.

It prefers sandy-loam soils in soil types. Uniform (uniform) output is provided in sandy-loam soils and the plant can develop well because it maintains moisture.

In extreme clay soils (heavy soils), plant root development is difficult, on the other hand it forms a creamy layer, which prevents the outflow. Sandy soils do not hold water, quickly pass down, so it is difficult to keep the moisture necessary for the healthy development of the plant.

On the other hand, in sandy soils, it becomes difficult for plants to stand up against strong winds and precipitation.

Adverse soil conditions cause the plants to become sick, stunted, the leaves become narrow and the green color disappears, no branching and consequently decrease in yield.

alternation

Poppy does not tire the soil, substitutes semi-fallow.

Cereals can be planted instead of leaving the field early. Since it is an anchor plant, it leaves after itself a clean field free of weeds.

Although it is possible to make poppy sow one after the other in the field, it has its drawbacks.

It is possible to list some of the drawbacks in the following year by increasing the transfer of diseases and pests to the next year, and by mixing seeds in the field in the following year.

It is useful to make poppy alternate with other products for an abundant and healthy product. It is recommended to plant poppies after fallow or effort crops.

Provided with sufficient fertilization, after barley and wheat, poppy yields satisfactory product.

Turkey does not usually irrigated areas under cultivation in fallow poppy, the poppy comes after one of the grain.

Fertilization

fertilization is necessary to get good yield from poppy.

150 kg of decare. When the seeds are taken, it is known that it removes 10.4 kg nitrogen, 5.3 kg phosphorus and 9.3 kg potassium from the soil.

These nutrients removed from the soil should be given with natural and artificial fertilizers considering the content of the soil.

Poppy is a plant that enjoys farm manure.

Farm manure provides nutrients to plants, but mainly has the effect of correcting the water holding capacity and character of the soil.

In the light of this explanation, it will be sufficient to give 2-2.5 tons of burnt farm manure per decare to the poppy field.

It is important to note that the manure is burnt. Irregular farm manure causes soil pests such as Danaburnu and Bozkurt to grow freely, and as with other plants, poppy causes damage especially in the young period.

The time to give the farm manure is the first release period to prepare the soil.

In the first version, farm manure is spread on the field surface and mixed into the soil by deep processing.

Another important issue is the plant nutrients that poppy needs to be fed to the soil with chemical fertilizers.

The amount of fertilizer to be used depends on the structure of the soil and nutrient content, but to give average figures for good growth and yield, 3 kg per hectare. pure phosphorus and 8-10 kg of pure nitrogen are sufficient. Because the territory of Turkey is rich in potassium fertilization is not required in this way.

In the light of the information given above, we recommend the following fertilization program.

It will be possible for the poppy to enter the winter more firmly and durably, to show a rapid development in spring, and consequently to obtain abundant and healthy products, timely and with sufficient fertilization.

Field Preparation

Poppy seeds are very small. The weight of a thousand is only 0.5 grams.

Considering the smallness of the seeds, it becomes clear that the field to be sown must be prepared with care.

First of all, the seeds need to be wrapped in moist soil to germinate.

On the other hand, poppy pile is a deep-rooted plant because it likes deep plowed fields. In order to meet these requirements, the procedures listed below are performed.

If the crop is removed from the field, a deep version is made by giving farm manure and the stubble and manure are mixed into the soil. This should be done as soon as the product is removed.

In the fallow field, farm manure should be given and applied deeply in autumn.

At the end of September and early October, all phosphorus fertilizer and half of the nitrogen fertilizer are scattered and the field is processed again.

Crowbar is used for tillage. If there is not enough moisture and if possible, irrigation should be done and the soil should be brought to the pan.

In soil cultivation works, soil should not be small, furda structure protection is important in poppy sowing as in other plants.

Slightly pouched soil prevents creeping at the end of rainfall and protects the plant against cold in winter poppies.

In summer plantings, it is enough to give the fertilizers at the first opportunity in spring and to apply the field deeply and to prepare it for planting.

seed

Poppy seeds maintain their germination ability for 3 years and gradually lose this feature in the following years.

It is therefore desirable that the seed used is fresh.

On the other hand, the seed should be in one color, ie unmixed, in natural color and smell.

Seed selection and purposeful cultivation are described in greater detail in the following topics, but it is useful to explain some aspects here.

Poppy diseases are the most important and most common poppy mildew.

This disease is transmitted to the next year by seed and spread.

To prevent this, care should be taken not to take seeds from the diseased field.

The best developed, large, fuller seeds on the poppy plant are found in the main capsule.

For this reason, it is necessary to take enough seeds from the well-developed mother capsules for the next sowing. While doing this, care should be taken not to mix colors.

Producing single color seeds is always in the interest of the producer in marketing.

October

In Turkey, poppy cultivation is generally done by hand spreading.

In sowing by hand, the seed is mixed only and sometimes by half with fine sand and sprinkled. Seed given per hectare in spreading sowing varies between 1-2-5 kg.

In machine sowing, the amount of seed given per decare decreases up to 300 grams.

In machine planting, the outlets are uniform and uniform, especially in hoeing and spraying.

Saving from seed cannot be ruled out in case of machine sowing.

The seeds should be covered with 2 cm soil layer, whether sprinkled or lined.

In spreading sowing, after the seed is laid on the soil surface, worshiper (wooden slider), shrub slider, disc harrow or rake is passed. Such a process is not required for machine sowing.

There is a point that should be taken into consideration especially during sowing, which is the direction of sowing.

The poppy plant suffers from strong winds, as described in previous chapters.

Considering this feature, especially in areas where strong wind is useful to plant in the direction of wind.

Although poppy is generally planted in autumn, it can be planted as a summer in case of damage from winter or in regions where winter is very harsh.

Glasses sowing time, depending on the region shows some differences, but the first week of October. Sowing time is the end of March and the beginning of April.

Although some books on poppy are mentioned in winter planting (January-February), this has no practical value in today's cultivation areas.

Maintenance Works

In poppy cultivation In terms of range maintenance work is important.

Satisfactory product purchase is possible with timely and adequate maintenance. In this section, maintenance works will be examined under the titles of irrigation, hoeing.

The issue of combating diseases and pests in the scope of care is explained extensively in the next section.

Irrigation

The seeds must find enough moisture in the seed bed to germinate.

In order for the plants to enter winter at the strength level, it is necessary to ensure the timely exit.

For this, the field should be annealed during planting or sufficient water should be given to the soil after planting.

To bring the soil to the pan before planting, in some of our regions, field release is irrigated and sowing is done on it.

After sowing, sprinkling was achieved and a healthy exit was achieved.

Both methods can be recommended to manufacturers who have the possibility.

In the studies, water consumption of poppy was found to be 752 mm in winter and 425 mm in summer. In winter poppy, once during the budding period (111 mm), in summer poppy; one in budding, one in flowering time (each time) 75-80 mm) twice watering is sufficient.

In this way, both seed and shell yields increased significantly with irrigation.

As a result, if possible, the poppy should be irrigated, especially in the years when the spring season is dry.

Hoeing

When the poppy plants have 7-10 leaves after the winter, dilution and first hoe are made.

If planting is done by machine, a plant is left on the row every 20 cm for 50 cm row spacing (Picture 9).

It is sufficient to leave the plant at 30 cm intervals in the fields that are planted.

Spreading is especially difficult in the first anchor planting, requires more workers. In line sowing, only grass is taken between the rows and the poppy dilution is made on the row.

This saves at least one third of the number of anchors per decare.

15-20 days after dilution and 1st anchor, second anchor and throat filling is performed.

Since the poppy plant is pile rooted, its side roots do not develop well and the above ground part is large, it cannot withstand the strong winds coming especially with rain and topples.

Throat filling therefore appears as an important precaution.

After the second hoe, the poppy develops very rapidly and the plants do not allow the development of weeds, shading the soil. As a result, there is no need to make a 3rd anchor in the poppy.

Harvest

When poppy capsules are installed, the seeds arranged on the membranes are poured into the bottom of the capsule.

Mature capsules sound when shaken by hand. All capsules on a plant, or in a field, do not mature at the same time.

Since the last capsules mature last, it is necessary to look at the lowest capsules to decide the harvest.

While the capsules are open and closed, it is a kind of feature, but it can also be seen in capsules that are not harvested and exposed to sunlight, in other words excessively dry.

The harvest time should not be delayed as this causes seed loss and loss.

During harvesting, the capsules are collected by breaking from the junction of the stalk, and enough of the main capsules for seed are cut with a knife and the seeds are taken to prevent any further color mixing. The rest of the product is passed through a capsule crushing machine or broken with wooden clips.

During harvesting, the capsules should be crushed to a certain extent whether they are scratched or dusted.