Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

CARROT GROWING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Carrots are a cool climate vegetable. Due to its resistance to germination and cold in the early period, it can be grown easily in cooler regions in early spring and in temperate regions in winter.

Although rainfall and moisture have a very positive effect on carrot cultivation, continuous adhesion makes production difficult and causes a decrease in yield.

Temperature has a positive effect on carrot color formation. During the cold and rainy production seasons, light carrots are obtained. The color formed at temperatures of 10-15 ° C is not a satisfactory carrot color.

Temperature is directly effective on root formation and carrot length is short at high temperatures. At low temperatures, although the carrot size shows its characteristics, this time the color and diameter of the carrot develop in a bad direction.

Longer and lighter carrots are produced. Soil moisture also affects the development of carrots, but not as much as the effect of temperature.

Especially in high drought and low temperature combined with humidity, carrot production negatively affects my production.

The best improvement is at temperatures around 20 ° C. In the spring production in hot regions, it is seen that a significant part of the plants bloom by passing into the generative phase without forming enough carrots.

SOIL REQUEST

Carrots, which are selective in terms of climate requirements, are also selective in terms of soil requirements. Soil structure has a significant effect on the success of carrot production.

Structure of the soil The depth of the soil affects the success of the pests that damage the roots in the soil.

Carrot production in light soils gives very good results under proper feeding and maintenance conditions. In such soils cultural processes are very easy and economical, and the resulting product achieves high quality.

Carrots require deeply structured, cool, well-treated soil rich in nutrients.

The emperor group carrots are successfully produced on deep, clay, sandy soils.

High yields can be achieved in carrots produced on clay soils under suitable environmental conditions. However, washing carrots produced on clay soils presents significant difficulties.

Therefore, carrots grown in these soils are used in the canning industry.

Soil character soils should be preferred for fresh carrot production and early carrot production.

Soil pH is important for carrot cultivation. Carrot is sensitive to high acidity. Soils with pH values ​​between 6-6.5 are ideal soils for carrot cultivation. Soil pH should not be less than 5.

SOIL PREPARATION AND OCTOBER

Carrot cultivation is one of the most important factors that affect the success of soil characteristics because we should examine the field very well and we must determine that it is suitable for growing carrots.

Soil pests from clay soils should be avoided from contaminated soils, especially nematodes and wire formed soils. Carrot production in such soils would be extremely wrong.

Due to late germination of carrot seeds, weeds develop rapidly and slow down the development of new germinating carrot plants and cover them.

Therefore, dilution and hoeing is also difficult. Weed factor is very important in field selection.

Taking into account all these issues, the soil to be planted with carrots should be processed very well and prepared for planting.

Due to the small size of carrot seeds and late germination, the soil should be thinned to ensure full contact of the seed with the soil.

Sowing should be carefully prepared and thinned soil with seeder.

Sowing depth should be 2.5-3 cm 600-800 g of seed per decare area should be thrown. The amount of seed to be planted is spaced between 25-30-40 cm.

In-line dilution distance varies between 5-12 cm. We see that carrot seeds germinate at temperatures above 10 ° C.

If the soil temperature is below this level, the seed does not germinate and the germination time is prolonged until sufficient temperature is formed.

After carrot planting, the cream binding also affects germination significantly.

Carrot seed can remain in the soil for a long time without damage and germinate when conditions are appropriate.

This happens the development of dense weeds in the long germination period. Use of weed medicine before germination after planting increases the success to prevent weed germination and development.

MAINTENANCE WORKS

After germination is completed and the plants have 2-3 genuine leaves, dilution is performed on the row.

Depending on the variety, the row spacing is adjusted. However, care should be taken not to damage the roots of the plants to be kept in the field during this dilution period.

Dilution labor costs a significant amount. In order to prevent this, sowing should be done with pneumatic drill, dilution frequency and seed with high germination confidence.

Maintenance work after dilution consists of manual removal of weeds and regular irrigation and control. In addition to nitrogen in potassium, potassium is also very important.

These two nutrients significantly affect yield and quality.

The plant prefers nitrogen in the form of nitrate.

Potassium increases the sugar content in carrots. Carrots are highly sensitive to salt, especially during germination and youth.

Fertilizing with sowing is therefore wrong. Such an application leads to germination failure. Gaps occur in rows. Organic fertilizers should be preferred in carrot cultivation and intensive inorganic fertilizers should be avoided in the early period.

Fertilization in the soil due to annealing from a week before the planting is not done until the fertilization of seedlings and germination is completed and plants are 2-3-leaf fertilization is more accurate.

8-10 kg of pure nitrogen per decare, 8-9 kg of phosphorus and 12-16 kg of potassium fertilizer should be calculated and mixed to a depth of 10-15 cm of soil at least two weeks before sowing.

If half of the nitrogen is applied before planting and the other half is applied when the plants are 3-4 leafy, loss is reduced by washing.

IRRIGATION

Regular watering is also very important in primary and secondary root development in carrots.

The primary dehydration causes the carrot length to remain short, the secondary dehydration causes the carrot to not thicken sufficiently, and irregular irrigation causes the carrot to become unsmarketable.

For this reason, irrigation is one of the most important factors affecting success in carrot cultivation.

MATURITY, HARVEST AND STORAGE

The maturity of carrots starts from the date when the carrot gains its characteristics and can take several weeks to harvest.

Earlier harvested carrots remain rickety, light in color and low in sugar because they are not sweet enough.

Harvesting of raw carrots should not be done before the ripening is completed.

However, if there is a gap in the market, the carrots can be harvested without completing the ripening in order to fill it.

Ripening period of carrots varies according to the variety, 8-10 weeks for early varieties, 12 weeks for medium varieties such as Nantes, 16-18 weeks for late varieties harvest maturity is reached.

Harvest is done by hand or by machine depending on the cultivated variety, the width of the growing area and the amount of carrot to be marketed.

Table carrots are marketed in bags by making a bunch of several of them with their leaves or by cutting the leaves after they are removed.

Carrot stored in closed containers for a long time after removal has angled.

Therefore, if long-term preservation is necessary, carrots should be cleaned and kept in a cool environment in the stream sand.

Storage temperatures are above 3-50 ° C. The harvesting of the carrots which are thought to be kept after being removed should be done after full ripening and care should be taken not to injure the carrots during the harvest.

YIELD

The yield of carrots varies according to variety, sowing frequency and harvest time.

The yield per decare varies between 2.5-5 tonnes in middle early varieties and 3-4 tonnes in late varieties. In very successful breeding, these values ​​may be 1 ton higher in both groups.

SEED PRODUCTION

Our country is one of the rare countries with extremely favorable ecological conditions for carrot seed production.

By using these advantages of our country, we can become one of the leading countries in carrot seed production in the world.

For the production of standard varieties of seeds, carrots with marketable properties are first produced.

These are selected and separated from those who do not have variety characteristics. Others are planted at a depth of 2-3 cm on the soil surface after shaving so that 2-3 cm leaves are left on the top of the carrots at 70-80 cm row and 30 cm row distances on the seed parcel in places where winter is mild.

Growing in spring, carrots ripen the seeds by developing the leaves and then the stem and flower bunches as described in the stem and flower characteristics.

Potassium fertilizers increase success in carrot seed production. In carrots, flower umbrellas occur gradually, and seed formation and ripening occurs gradually.

For this reason, the harvest needs to be done gradually in the form of harvesting of umbrellas that ripen the seeds. The umbrellas harvested with a handle of 8-10 cm in length are dried and blended in a shady airy place.

It is stated that 80-100 kg of seeds are taken from a decare area.

In the studies carried out by us, 130 kg seed was obtained from 1 decare area in Nantes group carrots under Manisa-Muradiye conditions. These values ​​denote seed without pile.

Germination differences occur if carrots are added without calibration due to the different size of the seeds formed from the first flowers and the groups of flowers formed thereafter.

This leads to production failures. That is why the seeds harvested should be pile after harvesting and must be calibrated to a certain size. seeds should be provided to form a group.

In winter frosty regions, carrots separated as seeds should be stored in the sand at temperatures of 3-5 ° C until the frost period has passed and should be planted as described after the risk of frost is removed.

Carrot Diseases and Pests

Pseudo- monas corrugata
Erwinia carotovora subsp.
Erwinia carotovora subsp.
Pythium spp.
.
Phytophthora
capsici
.
Streptomyces
scabies
.
Sclerotinia
sclerotiorum
.
Psila
rosae
.
Phyllotreta spp Epithrix hirtipennis