Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

FIG GROWING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

It grows in places with mild winters, hot and dry summers and average annual temperature of 18-20 ° C.

Higher temperatures, from fruit formation to the end of harvest (in May-October), require an average temperature of 30 ° C during fruit ripening and drying, such as August to September.

The temperature should not exceed 40 ° C. Otherwise, the branches burn, the fruits remain small and burn.

Fig cultivation cannot be successfully carried out where the lowest temperature falls below –9 ° C. It can be damaged by early frosts that fall down to –3, -4 ° C in October-November.

Temperatures of -1 ° C and lower in late March and April will impair the growth of new shoots and reduce crop yields.

Temperatures of -4 ° C and -7 ° C at the end of winter are harmful for male figs and bull bee.

Male fig orchards should be established in the north-facing, south-facing areas where winter frosts are not seen.

The optimal annual rainfall is 625 mm. Irrigation below this is necessary.

Trees grow strongly in areas with heavy rainfall, fruits are large and tasteless.

In terms of drying, the months of July should pass without precipitation and without clouds. The relative humidity of the air during the drying season should be 40-45%.

High relative humidity during ripening causes fruit splitting.

During the ripening and drying season, high relative winds blowing from the sea cause quality decrease in fruits and splits.

Small and dry fruits are formed if the hot and dry winds blowing from the land blow for a long time.

If the wet and cool wind blowing from the sea and the dry and hot wind blowing from the land blow each other, the size and quality of the fruit increases.

Strong winds blowing in the stitching period are not suitable as it prevents the flight of the bee.

SOIL REQUIREMENTS:

Grows in almost any soil except too much moist soils. In the case of dried fig quality, it is selective in terms of soil. It requires soils with deep, sandy-clay organic material and lime. 120 cm and deep soils develop well.

It is less resistant to soil salinity. Develops well in lime-rich soils. Neutral or near neutral soils with Ph 6-7, 8 are suitable. It is sensitive to excess of sodium and boron minerals.

It is damaged by unstable ground water that rises and falls with high ground water. Ground water should not be less than 2 meters from the ground.

PLANTING

Fig orchards can be installed by planting seedlings directly or by planting steel.

Although public and private institutions producing seedlings generally meet the demand, some of the producers go directly to the garden plant by planting steel in the garden.

When planting with rooted fig seedlings, the first height is “1-2 years old, more than 18 mm in diameter and more than 18 cm in height 10 and the second height is“ 1-2 years old, 10 cm above the soil surface. 18 mm and at least 75 cm in length.

An example of these seedlings and abundant eaves rooted, smooth, unscathed-bered body, free of diseases and pests, and care should be taken to the correct seedlings.

SOIL PREPARATION

Fig garden will be established before the process of export is done. If necessary, drainage etc. Land reclamation problems are taken care of. Garden soil is applied deeply 2-3 times before planting.

Soil aeration and rainfall is provided in the best way.

Measure against water floods should be taken in fig orchards to be established on slopes.

When the land slope exceeds 3%, contour planting should be done, where the slope exceeds 5%, depending on the condition of the slope 10-15 m

In the summer before planting in the garden, foreign plants with long-rooted rhizomes, such as cannabis, split v. P. Weed cleaning should not be underestimated and ignored.

PLANTING PLANTS

Fig seedlings can be optimally planted in the hibernation period, that is, in the period between leaf fall and re-walking in spring.

Depending on the condition of the land to be installed, one of the planting shapes is preferred. For this reason, SQUARE and RECTANGULAR planting is preferred in flat areas. Another shape that can be used in planting is TRIANGLE (or hexagonal) planting.

In cases where the land slope is more than 3%, the most suitable planting method is KONTIR planting in order to protect from flooding.

The distance selection at sewing may vary depending on the conditions. In shallow, infertile soils, narrows are used, whereas in deep, uniform and fertile soils, wider ranges are used. If the climate and soil conditions are poor, 6x6 m distances are preferred and 8x8 m distances are very good.

Seedlings of the garden to be planted, after marked, pits are opened. The opened pits 50 cm. at a depth of 40-50 cm. width.

The bottom of the pit should be mixed with some soil fertilizer from the top and filled. After pruning the root toilet, a planting should be planted in the middle part of the planting board and the seedlings should be tied to prevent damage.

Compress soil with foot to ensure contact of roots with soil during filling of pit It should yl. After planting seedlings, life water should be given.

MAINTENANCE WORKS OF FACILITY PERIOD

Fig plant is very sensitive to sunburn. Cardboard, thick paper, etc. to protect the newly planted fig seedlings from sunburn. or whitewash with lime.

In order to prevent growth of the dressing material and to prevent the development of new shoots, 20 cm. should not be covered.

Fig seedlings need irrigation in the first years. Even if the irrigation facilities are very limited, it is necessary to do so.

In cases where irrigation opportunities are very limited, mulching is done by placing sap, straw, grass and farm manure in the watering bowls at the bottom of the seedlings.

This prevents direct contact of the soil surface with sunlight and reduces water loss by evaporation from the soil surface. Depending on weather conditions, irrigation is stopped at the end of August or early September.

Weeds should be destroyed by regular tillage, hoeing and chemical weed killers.

ANNUAL MAINTENANCE WORKS

Fig gardens should be applied at least three times, once in autumn. 20 cm after harvest

The slope should be perpendicular to the slope.

Spring tillage 15 cm in March. depth. In flat terrain, it is driven in the direction perpendicular to the autumn version and in the sloping terrain again in the direction perpendicular to the slope. Untreated areas on tree bottoms are hoeed. Then the rake and disco are passed. Superficial soil tillage is essential to keep moisture in dry conditions.

SOIL PROCESSING

In the orchards of figs, the thoracic process is continuously applied and the method of not developing weeds is applied.

The main objectives of tillage are to provide aeration of the soil, to benefit from rainfall, to control weeds and to prepare the garden for harvest.

Fig orchards should be applied at least three times, one in autumn and two in spring.

Soil cultivation in autumn is carried out after the completion of fig harvest not to exceed 20 cm in depth.

The aim of the soil tillage in autumn is to provide aeration of the soil, to bury the plant residues that host some diseases and pests and to prepare the environment for the most benefit from winter rains by swelling the soil.

In less inclined places, pans are made in the garden in order to take full advantage of the winter rainfall.

When fig orchards are generally installed in sloping lands, trees should be planted in accordance with the contour planting system and versions should be made perpendicular to the slope.

Spring tillage, aeration of the soil and the use of spring rainfall is done in order to destroy weeds that develop in winter. It is done in March depending on the annealing status of the soil.

The third version is performed in the second half of June, following the addition. Rake and disc harrow is pulled to make the land suitable for harvesting dried figs.

IRRIGATION

The most suitable rainfall demand of fig tree is 625 mm. The amount of precipitation is 550 mm. watering should fall below.

In the years when annual rainfall is not enough, it is useful and even obligatory to make one or two irrigation depending on the amount of rainfall.

In cases where rainfall is very insufficient, the need for a second irrigation occurs in late June and early July.

In extreme years when the annual rainfall is very low and in cases where the garden soils are too high, winter rainfall is utilized to the highest level, even if winter irrigation is used, additional irrigation is required.

In such cases it is necessary to carry out additional watering in May and late June early July.

This should not be avoided even when irrigation is very difficult.

FERTILIZATION

The amount of lime to be given to the soil by calcification varies depending on soil pH, structure of soil, organic matter content and properties of lime materials to be used. Lime application is done in autumn.

The lime sprinkled in the soil is buried under the soil by release or other means.

Fertilization to be done should provide nutrients that are deficient in trees.

Nitrogen fertilization increases vegetative growth, ie leaf size, length of annual shoots.

When the length of shoot increases, the number of fruits increases. Despite this positive development in the number of fruit, fruit size decreases.

Especially in dried varieties, the quality of the dried fruit is reduced, the color of the fruit shell darkens.

Phosphorus nutrients also affect the fruit size of figs positively among other functions.

In fig cultivation, size is an important feature.

Potassium nutrients also affect fruit quality and product amount. Potassium reduces the damage of fruits from sunburn. Helps to obtain softer dried fig fruit with lighter skin color.

Various factors (climate, soil and plant factors) must be taken into account in determining the amount of fertilizer to be given.

Farm manure is calculated as 2-3 tons per decare. This amount of fertilizer to distribute between every 4 trees with 1-2 car fertilizer left It is not right to stack manure on the bottom of trees.

Farm manure is given immediately after harvest and is immediately mixed with soil by autumn tillage.

However, in order to determine the fertilizer requirement of fig tree, field tests, soil and plant analyzes have not been done yet, and the deficiencies in the trees have not been detected, the most consistent way is to determine whether the trees have any problems in terms of nutrition by observing the trees in their gardens.