Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

CHERRY AND CHERRY BREEDING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Cherry trees like a warm growing season, resting for a certain period in winter, a rain-free flowering and harvesting period.

Cherry is a kind of fruit that needs high cooling.

 

It requires more than 1000 hours of cooling.

If this need is not met, irregular flowering and shrugs are seen. Approximately 1000 m. Ideal for altitude aquaculture.

Where winter temperatures fall below –20 ºC, cherry should not be grown.

Extreme summer temperatures are undesirable because it promotes double pistil formation and therefore twin fruit.

Because such fruits have no market value.

One of the most important climate factors in cherry cultivation is temperature.

Although the flower buds can withstand ,42.4 ° C, blooming flowers freeze at –2 ° C.

The cherry woody parts can withstand –40 ° C.

Cherries withstand low temperatures more than cherries.

As blooming in spring is later than cherries, cherry flowers are less likely to be damaged by late spring frosts.

Winter resting requests are more important for cherries than cherries and they need to get enough winter cold to get out without resting.

Delays and irregularities are seen in the flowering of cherries whose cooling needs are not met.

Lambert, Napoleon and Bing are more prominent in cherry varieties that require high cooling.

Inability to meet the winter resting requests in cherries also creates problems in terms of fertilization.

After the warm winters, the low-cold variety needs to bloom earlier than the high-cold variety, so these two types cannot pollinate and fertilize each other.

As sour cherries are self-productive, there is no problem.

Generally, the cherry and sour cherries have a cooling time of 1100-1700 hours under +7.2 ° C.

CHERRY PLANT NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES, SYMPTOMS, REMOVAL, FERTILIZATION

In case of deficiency, please use one of our products or search for the following. To avoid deficiencies, use regularly as the first leaves are up to the sparrow beak.

Zinc deficiency in cherry cultivation

In cherry zinc deficiency, small foliage or rosette is observed in the trees.

Symptoms occur in newly developing parts.

The nodes of the shoots are shortened towards the end of the shoot.

 Leaves lose their normal shape and dry and shed as if exposed to severe drought.

Fruit attitude is affected.

Fruits remain small and deform.

This deficiency can be caused by the lack of zinc in the soil and excessive phosphorus. It is common in light soils with high PH and easily washed.

For treatment, soil and leaf analyzes should be made and according to the results of the analysis, fertilizer applications containing zinc or foliar should be applied.

A typical symptom of zinc deficiency in cherry trees is the formation of shrunken, shrunken leaves and rosettes.

The reason for this measurement is that the lengths of the nodes are considerably shortened.

Leaf edges sometimes become wavy.

Yellow leaf mosaic stains occur between the veins, with the vascular edges of the leaf surface remaining green.

  If deficiency is not too severe only affects the leaves, shoot development continues normally.

However, if deficiency is severe, shoot development stops completely.

The number of fruit buds in shoots decreases or disappears completely.

Blackening is seen in the fruit meats of stone fruits.

Potassium deficiency in cherry growing

Potassium deficiency in cherry, old leaves on the edges, observed as a blight.

The ends of the leaves are curled.

The necrotic areas on the leaf blade are separated from the intact tissue with a distinct borderline.

In dry seasons, the severity of the symptom increases.

Fruit eye formation is very reduced. This deficiency may be caused by a lack of potassium in the soil and a low cation exchange capacity in the soil.

 Potassium deficiency in stone-potted fruit trees such as cherry, apricot and peach causes symptoms that appear with curling of leaves and reddish brown spots.

At the ends of the shoots die, weak flower measurement and fruits are smaller than normal.

Nitrogen deficiency in cherry growing

Nitrogen deficiency in cherry, fruits become dark.

In general, it causes a decline in the development of green parts, fade in the color of leaves.

This deficiency is even more pronounced at the end of the growing season.

Fruits generally remain small and ripen early.

This deficiency; Lack of nitrogen and organic matter in the soil can cause low soil temperature, low phosphorus content, and excessive drought.

The symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in cherry leaves are small, narrow, light green color.

Old leaves can be yellowish orange colored or reddish purple colored and shed early.

Leaf stalks are at a narrow angle to the branch, thin and short, and If the arrow is severe, the stems are seen dead.

Shoot development is weak. The number of buds and flowers is low and the fertilization time of the flowers is short.

Fruits are colored before ripening.

Fruits are dark in cherry.

The leaves are short and yellowish green in nitrogen deficiency in cherry.

Branches thrive fine.

Usually the flowers are abundant, but the number of fruits is small and the fruits become small.

Boron deficiency in cherry cultivation

The most remarkable symptom in boron deficiency in cherry is in fruits.

Browning and fungalization of fruit meat.

Or spots are seen.

Cracking and fungus are also seen in the fruit peel.

Ripening is irregular.

Vegetative growth is negatively affected.

Hill bud and shoots die backwards.

Curls are observed on the leaves.

From the side eyes, new shoots occur, but the buds at the ends of them die quickly.

This deficiency may be caused by insufficient boron in the soil, low PH, excessive lime applications, excessive drought, excessive rainfall.

Easily washed organic matter is often seen in poor soils.

Boron chain, 20-25 cm. depth and width of furrows should be given with 40-50 liters of water.

Foliar applications should be made in cases where soil lime is higher than certain rates, PH is not suitable, excessive rainfall and excessive drought, and acute deficiencies that need urgent correction.

Research has shown that leaf applications are more effective than soil applications.

Magnesium deficiency in cherry growing

 

In cherry magnesium deficiency, dark green, loose-textured leaves of old shoots and between the veins, chlorotic and necrotic areas occur.

Towards the end of the growing season, the severity of symptoms increases and necrotic areas turn black.

Holes occur in the leaves.

The colors of the leaves at the end of the shoot are opened.

The shedding of the leaves is accelerated.

This deficiency can be caused by magnesium deficiency in the soil, excessive potassium and calcium, excessive precipitation.

Copper deficiency in cherry cultivation

In cherry copper deficiency, it is characterized as backward death and witch-broom.

Backward death at the tips of the shoots, bushiness of newly developing parts, double bud formation and gluing are the main symptoms.

In addition, the leaves may be small, chlorotic or necrotic stained and pigmented into spots.

Another feature of copper deficiency is that the generative development of plants, flower and fruit formation, is affected more than vegetative development.

Phosphorus deficiency in cherry growing

Phosphorus deficiency in cherry, first dark green colored shoot at the bottom of the mature leaves, then turns brown.

Leaf veins and stems are violet.

The symptoms are most clearly observed in the active growth cycle.

This deficiency can be caused by insufficient organic matter in the soil, cold and humid conditions and acidic soils.

Cherry pests and diseases

Armillaria Mellea
.
Pseudomonas Syringae Pv. Syringae
Tranzschelia pruni-spinosae
Cherry Leafroll Nepovirus
Agrobac- terium Tumefaciens
Monilia
Laxa
Mellea .
Avrupa Cherry Rasp Leaf
Rosellinia Necatrix
.
Prunus Necrotic Ringspot v
Stigmina Corpophila
.
Cherry Leafroll Nepovirus
Zeuzera Pyrina
.
Cossus Cossus
.
Stephanitis Pyri
.
Epicometis (=Tropinota) Hirta
Agalmatium Flavescens
.
Pseudau- lacaspis Pentagona)
Tetranychus urticae
.
Rhagoletis Cerasi
.
Myzus Cerasi
.
Caliroa Limacina
.
Capnodis Spp.
.
Anthonomus pomorum
L.
A. amygdali Hust.
.
Nilotaspis Halli
.
Archips xylosteanus L
Lyonetia Clerkella
.
Scolytus Rugulosus
.
Parlatoria Oleae
.
Spilonota ocellana
.

Important note:

Always use Wet spreader glue if your irrigation or spray water has a pH of 8 - 8.5 every time you spray your garden. (Soil and water pH in many regions of our country is up to 8- 8.5 or even up to 9.) All drugs produced are produced according to the pH range of 6-7. Even the best quality medicines lose their effect by up to 30%, from 6 to 15 minutes. Buddha will reduce the effect of your medicine.

For this reason, our advice to your holder, tank or back pump,

TANK RANKING (DO NOT BREAK THE RANKING)

1 PH DECREASING ADHESIVE  It reduces the pH of the spraying water and prevents the deterioration of the drug. Once the medicines are applied to the plant, it allows the drug to spread to the leaf and prevents it from flowing through the leaves.
2 PLANT FOOD Provides smooth and balanced nutrition of the plant. It makes the fruits attractive, bright, colorful, large, durable, hard, heavy, tasty and pleasantly fragrant.
3 INSECTICIDES Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, according to the pest period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
4 FUNGUSİT MUSHROOM (After mixing in a separate container) Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, depending on the disease period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
5 OTHER Other trace elements recommended by technical staff.  

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

LIME SOLVENT It should be used in calcareous soils at the beginning of the season. Lime wrapped around capillary roots destroys the creamy layer. Soil bound iron, phosphorus and phosphates are released in the soil, the plant uses them. you do not need to use iron and phosphorus fertilizers repeatedly. 1 Kg drip irrigation per hectare
PLANT FOOD First application before flowering,
second application in fruit attitude,
The third application is done 45 days before harvest
Two applications with 300 gr / 100 lt water in all periods required.
200-300 cc
ZINC Apply when eyes explode and flowering is over. The most important time to apply the fruit is collected (before the leaves fall yet) configure. It allows the accumulation of zinc in the eyes of next spring and healthy new shoots. 125-150 cc
DRIP IRRIGATION NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, BALANCED, POTASSIUM It should be used regularly every semester. NPK of the plant must be met 2-3 kg
ORGANIC Organic based drip irrigation and release irrigation fertilizer. Fifteen days apart. One empty, one full watering or split quantities full watering Dönüme
5-7 kg

Foliar fertilizer should be used in every application. Leaf fertilizers prevent plants from getting stressed. It meets the micro element needs of plants. Improves fruit set and quality of fruits.

Manganese deficiency in cherry cultivation

In manganese deficiency in cherry, It causes yellowing of old leaves.

However, the young leaves at the ends of the shoots remain green.

This deficiency can be observed when end shoots grow.

Manganese deficiency can be distinguished from iron deficiency by not being seen in young leaves and magnesium deficiency by not causing necrosis between the veins.

Iron deficiency in cherry cultivation,

this physiological disease begins in the form of slight yellowing of the leaves.

First, the veins are yellow, but the veins remain green.

Then the whole leaf turns yellow.

The edges of the leaves dry with a reddish brown color.

Sick leaves can be shed later.

The leaves remain smaller than usual.

Shoots remain short and begin to dry back from the ends.

Trees weaken year by year and fruit yield decreases.

Trees may dry out if no precaution is taken.

Iron deficiency is a major problem, especially in calcareous soils.

Yellowing is either due to the lack of sufficient iron elements in the soil, or the lack of iron in the soil, although the iron cannot be taken up by the plant because it is held by calcareous soil.

In cherry and cherry cultivation, it is best to spread the rainfall regularly throughout the year.

In general, 600 mm rainfall in areas where cherry, 400 mm rainfall in areas where the cherry cultivation can be done without the need for irrigation.

During cherry and sour cherry blooming and fruit formation, it is not desirable to have rainy weather.

Because the heavy rain at the time of flowering makes fertilization difficult and causes increased fungal damage.

Again, during the ripening of the fruit rain may cause fruit to crack, lowering the market value.

Cherries yield at the age of 5-6 years, but full and economic yield to 10-12 years.

Although they live 100 years, their economic life is 25-30 years.

The economic life of sour cherry is 15-20 years.

Well-drained, deep, airy soils that can be irrigated regularly in summer cherry s are the most suitable soil.

 In poor soils with poor drainage, the tree develops poorly and sparse fruit branches occur.

Again in dry soils the fruits remain small.

Where the ground water is high, the roots remain exposed and the growth of the tree is slow.

In such cases, the risk of the tree being affected by drought and frost increases.

Cherries are more tolerant to soil.

Cherries can be grown in dry, sandy or calcareous soils.

Especially in places where idris rootstock is used, the resistance of cherries to drought increases.

The most ideal soil for sour cherry is suitable for cherry growing.

REPRODUCTION

The most appropriate propagation method is vaccine reproduction.

The most appropriate form of vaccination is the stagnant eye vaccine.

In nursery stagnant eye vaccination should first be started from wild cherry seeds.

It is possible to start the vaccination later and continue this work until the beginning of autumn, since the vegetative development of the idris usually takes longer, ie the rootstock gives a crust until late.

The time of onset of stagnant eye can be adjusted according to the maturation state of the rootstock, at the end of the maturation of the vaccine eyes.

GARDEN PLANT FOR CHERRY AND CHERRY GROWING

When planting cherries and cherry orchards, especially in cherries, a good planting plan is required.

As there is no fertilization problem in sour cherries, a single type of garden can be established. However, a second kind increases the yield more.

Since the cherries are sterile, the main varieties should never be more than two rows away from the pollinator.

By taking this principle into account for both fertilization and harvesting and marketing facilities; the garden should be planted at least 4-5 varieties, even 7-8 varieties.

Planting intervals are determined by conditions such as soil condition, rootstock, irrigation and fertilization.

However, generally used planting gaps, 8 x 8, 8 x 6 or 7 x 7; 6 x 6, 5 x 6 in cherries grafted on idris; Stockton Morello clones rootstock in the cherry grafted on the 3 x 4 m düş falls up.

The sour cherries grafted on the sour cherry are 4 x 4 and 3 x 4 m.

IRRIGATION IN CHERRY AND CHERRY BREEDING

Where annual rainfall is 600 mm or more, if the cherry is 400 mm or more, it is not necessary to water the cherry.

However, under these rainfalls, watering 2-3 times a year would be beneficial for vegetative and generative growth.

Pruning in cherry and cherry growing

Cherries and cherries differ in terms of the development of the crown.

Cherry varieties often form a crown planted growing, while cherry varieties form a more flat crown shape.

For this reason, cherries are usually crowned as a modified leader (different peaked branch system) while a pyramid or modified leader (different peak branched) system is applied.

Widely applied is the modified leading system from both.

In the modified leader system, the general principles are the same as in apples and pears.

in cherries, due to the sensitivity of the fork branches to splitting, it is necessary to pay special attention to the formation of strong roof branches.

Seedlings, preferably 1.5-2 cm. 150-200cm in diameter. tall, should be an old and strong.

The tops of these seedlings are 90-107cm. is shot from.

Apart from the leader, the 4 side branches are 30cm. and the angle between the main body and 45-60 °.

After the roof is formed, the trees should be pruned very little until they lie down.

Especially in young cherry trees, branches tend to develop upwards.

In this respect, it is necessary to pay special attention to the development of side branches.

Briefly, both cherry and cherry require light pruning throughout its life.