Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

CORN GROWING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Corn is a plant cultivated in temperate and tropical regions.

There are many types of corn produced commercially adapted to different climatic conditions.

On the other hand, corn farming is possible in places lower than sea level and up to four thousand meters.

The regions where the corn plant is best developed are the regions with at least 120 frost days and an average of 2100-2200 Day Development Degree.

In forest - pasture climates where water is abundant and temperature is temperate, highest yield levels are reached.

Corn plant can begin to germinate at 10-11 ° C.

When soil temperature reaches 15 C at a depth of 5-10 cm, germination is accelerated.

Although corn is a warm climatic plant, it is not a plant that requires extreme heat.

Temperatures above 38 ° C for several days will damage the plant.

Although the corn plant is thought to develop well on hot nights, there is no good development on hot and humid nights.

Generally, the best conditions for corn are cold nights, sunny days and moderate temperatures.

Corn yield is lower in tropical climate than in subtropical climate due to frequent cloudy weather and reduced photosynthesis due to low light.

Although the optimum and minimum relative humidity values ​​for the development of the plant depend on the temperature and the amount of water that can be taken, in general, the relative humidity conditions are reduced to 50% and below.

Particularly during the pollination, low air humidity interrupts grain binding and increases water losses.

When the climate data of our country are taken into consideration, corn can be easily produced with suitable varieties and irrigation in the regions other than the regions where low temperature, high temperature and low relative humidity conditions prevail.

PLANT FOOD DEFICIENCIES, SYMPTOMS, REMOVAL AND FERTILIZATION IN EGYPTIAN CULTURE

 In case of deficiency, please use one of our products or search for the following. To avoid deficiencies, use regularly as the first leaves are up to the sparrow beak.

Corn breeding in zinc deficiency,

The symptoms manifest themselves as irregularly shaped, yellow spots around the green veins.

Shrinked, narrowed and chlorinated leaf bundles are formed.

In the shoots, the knuckle spacing is very short.

These images are more common in south-facing directions of trees.

Fruits are dehydrated and tasteless.

Corn breeding in potassium deficiency

The knuckle is shortened and causes the plant to remain stunted and a thin body is formed.

Chlorosis and drying are seen on the edges and edges of the old leaves.

Chlorosis progresses into the leaves over time.

It is noteworthy that the development of the ends of the cobs is weak.

Potassium is an essential nutrient for the formation and transport of carbohydrates in plants.

Potassium enhances the growth of stalk in the corn plant.

In case of deficiency, the stem does not develop well and breaks and lies are seen.

In addition, potassium positively affects root growth, increases plant resistance to cold and increases efficiency by allowing optimal use of nitrogen.

Therefore, corn is a plant with high potassium need.

 Nitrogen deficiency in corn breeding

is a plant that shows very clearly.

Plants become yellowish green color.

Old leaves turn yellow, starting from the ends and wilting along the main vessel is seen.

The body remains short and thin.

The corn plant can remove Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen from the free air, but never use the nitrogen in the air.

Nitrogen fertilization constitutes the most difficult part of the fertilization program since only half of the nitrogen given to the soil can be used by the corn plant and the rest is lost in various ways.

Nitrogen is a nutrient used by the corn plant during its whole life period.

While nitrogen fertilizer requirement is not very high at the beginning of the growth period, it increases suddenly in the third week of sowing and reaches its highest level starting from 10 days before tassel formation until 25-30 days later.

Corn breeding in boron deficiency

As a result of the shortening of the knuckle, the plant is stunted and white necrotic spots are seen around the middle vein on both sides of the middle leaves.

The youngest leaves curl and die.

The cobs are small, crooked and the number of grains in the cob is extraordinarily small.

Corn breeding in iron deficiency

The most typical symptoms of young leaves are that even the thinest veins remain green and the color turns completely yellow between the veins.

Thus, the youngest leaves become white due to insufficient chlorophyll formation.

Symptoms of iron deficiency are more common in plants grown on calcareous alkaline soils.

In iron deficiency, the amount of various pigment substances such as carotine, xanthine, lutein decreases in parallel with chlorophyll a and b amounts.

Similar to the rate of photosynthesis in plants decrease.

Maize breeding in magnesium deficiency,

Since magnesium ions are mobile in the plant, they are easily transported from the old leaves to the newly formed young leaves.

Therefore, symptoms of magnesium deficiency are first seen in old leaves.

The typical symptom of magnesium deficiency is yellowing between the veins in the aged leaves. The primary and secondary veins (first and second veins) retain their green color, and the third and thinner veins and the intervening areas turn yellow.

The leaf has a mottled appearance.

In extreme cases, chlorotic tissues die and form brown necrosis.

Corn cultivation in phosphorus deficiency,

old leaves and stems of red violet color changes in contrast to the young leaves become dark green color.

Old leaves then curl and die prematurely.

The trunk becomes thin and maturation is delayed.

Consists of irregular grains.

After nitrogen, the most important nutrient in plant development is phosphorus.

The amount of phosphorus in soil and plant is lower than nitrogen and potassium.

However, unlike nitrogen, phosphorus is not washed away from the soil.

The most sensitive period in terms of phosphorus of corn plant is the beginning of the season.

This is because the plant needs a high proportion of phosphorus in its tissues in order to achieve normal growth in its young period (until it reaches 60 döneminde65 cm).

Corn breeding in manganese deficiency

young and old leaves, yellowish green streaks occur in the middle parts of the leaves.

Although similar chlorosis is observed in iron deficiency, these symptoms are initially only young leaves in iron.

If the manganese deficiency is severe, the yellow lines become necrotic and turn white thoroughly.

Young leaves are usually pale green when growing.

Even if the deficiency is mild, the decrease in the amount of the product is inevitable.

Corn breeding in calcium deficiency,

Young leaves become deformed and black and brown necrosis occurs at the edges of the leaves.

 In the tissues damaged by deficiency, the cell walls are melted and these places take a trapezoid structure.

In iron deficiency in maize, in the leaves of plants, parallel green veins and yellow lines in between extend from the tip of the leaf.

Similar symptoms are manganese deficiency, but manganese yellow - green parallel lines are seen in the middle parts of the leaf, do not start at the ends.

Foliar fertilizer should be used in every application. Leaf fertilizers prevent plants from getting stressed.

It meets the micro element needs of plants.

Improves fruit set and quality of fruits.

Important note:

Always use Wet spreader glue if your irrigation or spray water has a pH of 8 - 8.5 every time you spray your garden. (Soil and water pH in many regions of our country is up to 8- 8.5 or even up to 9.) All drugs produced are produced according to the pH range of 6-7. Even the best quality medicines lose their effect by up to 30%, from 6 to 15 minutes. Buddha will reduce the effect of your medicine.

For this reason, our advice to your holder, tank or back pump,

TANK RANKING (DO NOT BREAK THE RANKING)

1 PH DECREASING ADHESIVE  It reduces the pH of the spraying water and prevents the deterioration of the drug. Once the medicines are applied to the plant, it allows the drug to spread to the leaf and prevents it from flowing through the leaves.
2 PLANT FOOD Provides smooth and balanced nutrition of the plant. It makes the fruits attractive, bright, colorful, large, durable, hard, heavy, tasty and pleasantly fragrant.
3 INSECTICIDES Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, according to the pest period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
4 FUNGUSİT MUSHROOM (After mixing in a separate container) Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, depending on the disease period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
5 OTHER Other trace elements recommended by technical staff.  

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

LIME SOLVENT It should be used in calcareous soils at the beginning of the season. Lime wrapped around capillary roots destroys the creamy layer. Soil bound iron, phosphorus and phosphates are released in the soil, the plant uses them. you do not need to use iron and phosphorus fertilizers repeatedly. 1 Kg drip irrigation per hectare
PLANT FOOD First application before flowering,
second application in fruit attitude,
The third application is done 45 days before harvest
Two applications with 300 gr / 100 lt water in all periods required.
200-300 cc
ZINC Apply when eyes explode and flowering is over. The most important time to apply the fruit is collected (before the leaves fall yet) configure. It allows the accumulation of zinc in the eyes of next spring and healthy new shoots. 125-150 cc
DRIP IRRIGATION NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, BALANCED, POTASSIUM It should be used regularly every semester. NPK of the plant must be met 2-3 kg
ORGANIC Organic based drip irrigation and release irrigation fertilizer. Fifteen days apart. One empty, one full watering or split quantities full watering Dönüme
5-7 kg

Foliar fertilizer should be used in every application. Leaf fertilizers prevent plants from getting stressed. It meets the micro element needs of plants. Improves fruit set and quality of fruits.

Diseases and pests of corn plants

 pythium spp., fusarium spp., rhizoctonia spp.
ustilago
maydis
.
bipolaris maydisnisik exserohilum
sesamia nonagrioides lef.
ostrinia nubilalis
hbn.
tanymecus dilaticollis
gyll.
pseudaletia (=mythimna) unipuncta
agrotis
ipsilon
(hufn.)
spodoptera
caradrina exigua (hübn.)
gryllotalpa gryllotalpa
.
tetranychus urticae
koch.
agriotes spp., melanotus fuscipes
helicoverpa armigera
hbn.
hemiptera: cicadellidae
.

SOIL PREPARATION IN CORN CULTURE

The most suitable soil type for corn farming is silty-clay soils due to its water holding capacity, nutrient storage, ease of processing, good drainage and aeration.

Besides, corn cultivation can be done in other soil types provided that it minimizes its disadvantages, evaluates the advantages well and makes the necessary improvement practices.

Soil cultivation in corn farming is done for the purpose of seed bed preparation, weed control, provision of soil conditions to facilitate plant development, fragmentation of the stubble and regulation of water in the soil.

Overprocessing of the thoracic can not be beneficial and can cause economic and physical damage.

Soil cultivation practices in maize agriculture can be listed as first release and duplication operations.

The first version is made to smash the grass bed, mix the stubble into the soil, destroy the weeds and break the plow base.

In the first release, tools such as sub-drum, eared plow, chisel plow and disc plow are used.

Duplication covers all tillage from plowing to seed sowing.

The doubling is done for the purpose of suppressing, loosening or thinning the seed bed, cutting plant remains and destroying weeds.

Milling, goble, disc harrow, spring cultivator, field cultivator, gear rake, worshiper and roller are used in the doubling process.

OCTOBER IN EGYPTIAN CULTURE

Important issues in corn sowing are sowing time, sowing depth and sowing frequency.

Although early sowing has a yield increasing effect, some precautions should be applied together when making early sowing.

Otherwise, early planting may bring harm instead of benefit.

SOWING DEPTH IN EGYPTIAN CULTURE

Sowing depth in corn varies according to climate and soil conditions. Corn is usually planted to a depth of 2 to 7.5 cm.

Sowing depth can be increased if the soil surface is dry and hot.

For example, in dry soils, the seed can be planted to a depth of 7.5-8.5 cm in clay soils, 10-11.5 cm in silty soils and 12.5 cm in sandy soils to leave a more humid environment.

The ideal sowing depth is 5 cm in the soil where the soil humidity and temperature is sufficient and at the appropriate sowing time.

OCTAGE FREQUENCY IN EGYPTIAN CULTURE

Optimum sowing frequency used Varies, sowing time, purpose of cultivation, height, climate, irrigation amount and varies depending on the condition of the soil.

Frequent planting increases the number of plants that do not bind stubs and laying, may reduce the grain / stalk ratio.

In addition, water and fertilizer requirement of the plant increases in the field where frequent planting is performed.

Very rare sowing causes a decrease in the amount of product taken from the unit area.

Spreading, quarry and row sowing methods are used in corn planting.

Spreading is generally applied in mountainous areas and small areas and a very high amount of seeds such as 10-11 kg per decare is used.

The output is more regular in January sowing.

Sowing in line can be done by hand or by seeding machines.

The most suitable sowing method is sowing machines while sowing.

MAINTENANCE IN EGYPTIAN CULTURE

Apart from irrigation, fertilization, control of diseases and pests in corn plants, weed control is another important maintenance process.

The first 3-5 weeks is a critical period for weed control in maize plant.

The results of the research show that weeds reaching 15-20 cm in length affect the corn yield negatively.

The basic principle of weed control is to prevent the weed out or to minimize the damage to the plant by controlling during weeding.

Cultural control and control of chemical herbicides are the basic methods used in weed control.

Cultural control is carried out by using suitable crop rotation, tillage, planting method and the use of herbicides.

The chemical struggle is done by using herbicides of different structure that prevent germination of weed seeds, kill weeds by contact effect or stop the development of physiological system by disrupting the hormone system.

There is no single herbicide that can control all weed species.

Therefore, different herbicides can be combined and applied separately or at different times.

Successful weed control in corn farming is only possible with early (before planting) planning.

For this purpose, weed map of the field is created to determine which parts of the field and which weed species are present.

IRRIGATION IN EGYPTIAN CULTURE

The beneficial water for the corn plant is the amount of water remaining after the total evaporation, surface runoff and leaking water comes out from the amount of rainfall during the growing period.

High temperature and radiation and low humidity in our southern and western regions where large corn cultivation areas are present cause excess water loss from soil surface and plant leaves.

In order to reach a high yield in these regions, it is obligatory to give the water that the plant needs by irrigation.

Especially in conditions where intensive farming (high quality seeds, adequate fertilizer use, pest and disease control, etc.) is applied, corn plant should be irrigated in appropriate intervals and with sufficient amounts in order to make economic production by meeting high production costs. .

A good irrigation program includes a plan to meet the water requirement of the plant and to show when and how much water should be given.

While preparing the irrigation program, factors such as climatic and soil conditions of the region, plant appearance, development period and root depth should be taken into consideration.

In addition, water quality and irrigation methods are of great importance in irrigation.

Irrigation method should be suitable for local and farm conditions.

Central sprinkler system is the most suitable irrigation method for large sowing areas.

HARVEST HARMAN IN EGYPTIAN CULTURE

Harvest maturity in maize is determined by measuring the moisture content of the grains.

In cases where there is no possibility of measuring moisture, it is tried to be understood by observing the change in maturity grain.

Corn grains that reach physiological maturity contain about 35% moisture.

When the ratio drops to 30-32%, the corn is considered ripe.

The optimal harvest time is the period in which the moisture content in the grain is around 25%.

Early harvest is usually a preferred condition.

This reduces the risk of bed decay and wind down, reduces the chance of catching autumn rains and minimizes harvest losses.

The main disadvantage of early harvest is that more energy is needed for drying.

Delayed harvest results in increased product loss and reduced quality.

Harvesting process is done by hand or harvesting machines developed for this work.

Among the various harvesting machines, harvesting machines and harvester harvesters are most commonly used.

Accurate determination of machine settings and working speed in machine harvesting is of great importance in terms of reducing harvest losses.

DRYING STORAGE

The corn to be stored for a long time must be dried before storage.

Drying can be carried out by means of ventilation (naturally), but this method is hardly used. Common drying method is artificial drying with heated air.

Moisture content in corn grain by drying process