Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

POMEGRANATE GROWING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

It is cultivated almost anywhere from sea level up to 1000m altitude, which is not selective in terms of climate and soil requirements.

Hot and dry winters are hot and rainy in the summer.

Pomegranate requires an average annual precipitation of 500 mm, but most of this precipitation is needed in the spring.

Summer rains deteriorate the quality of fruit, rains in the near term ripening of the fruit peel is cracking, at this time does not give good results.

Dry weather conditions in fruit formation period increases the market value by providing the highest quality fruit

In harsh winters, it can be avoided in the south to avoid frost damage.

The plant usually withstands temperatures down to -10 ° C. Branches at temperatures of -15 ’C and lower, the plant is damaged at -20’ C.

Although it is green in tropical climates, it leaves little need for cooling in the subtropical and temperate regions.

SOIL REQUIREMENTS IN Pomegranate Growing

Pomegranate can grow in almost all kinds of soil types, from very gravelly sandy soils to clay and heavy soils.

The most suitable soils in order to buy economic products are; deep, loamy, permeable, slightly alkaline, rich in organic materials.

It can also grow in conditions of very dry and very moist soils. It can tolerate 6 milimhos / cm salt amount which can be harmful for many plant species and can live for 150 to 200 years under any climate condition. Soil can be alkaline or acid.

GARDEN PLANT AND PLANTING IN NARROW GROWING

After checking the suitability of the soil for pomegranate cultivation, it should be leveled.

Firstly, in the summer, the bottom is pulled to break the plow base. Then deep plow is done.

In the fall period, planting pits with a depth and diameter of 40-60 cm are opened.

The pits are filled with a mixture of top soil and burnt farm manure, weeds are cleaned.

Planting intervals in pomegranate should be between 2 m and 6 m.

In addition, the most widely used planting gaps in closure pomegranate orchards are 2.5 x 4 or 3 x 4 m.

If the rows are in the north-south direction, the sun and lift-off will be better.

The pomegranate orchard can be installed directly with steel or rooted seedlings.

However, since planting the cuttings directly into the garden will cause various maintenance difficulties and yield losses, pomegranate cuttings should be planted in a nursery parcel and planted for one year and then planted in the garden.

Pomegranate seedlings can be planted in the fall and early spring, starting from autumn leaf fall.

Autumn planting is more suitable in regions where winters are not too cold.

When planting is cut, if there is any nail left in the steel part of the seedling.

Weak shoots are taken, too long roots are shortened.

The top of the shoot is taken from 50-60 cm. If the shoot is not sufficiently sorted and weakly developed, it is cut over 2-3 eyes immediately after planting and strong shoot formation is provided for next year.

Then from the pit filled with soil-fertilizer mixture before the steel part of the seedlings will be in the soil until the mixture is removed.

The seedlings are placed here and reinforcement is made with the same soil fertilizer mixture. The soil at the bottom of the saplings is thoroughly pressed with the foot.

A small bowl is made around it to give life water. In very windy regions, two opposite herbs are connected diagonally to the seedlings.

In a good pomegranate seedling, the root system must be strong.

Finally, the dishes prepared at least twenty liters. planting is completed by giving life water, even if it is rainy, this life water should be given.

Pruning in pomegranate cultivation

Pruning time occurs in two periods, winter and summer.

After planting in the first year, the seedlings are pruned from 50 to 60 cm in length.

If the seedling is short, shoots are cut over 2-3 eyes to promote strong growth.

Because it is a shrub-shaped plant, 3-4 branches from different directions are selected and the hills are shot from 50-60 cm2.

Low crowning is provided. Apart from these, the bottom shoots are cut continuously.

After 2-3 years of shape pruning, the tree yields, fruit-giving branches are at the end of the end of the process is left to take.

Out of the selected 3-4 hulls, the bottom brooms are cut into voracious and dried branches.

Pomegranate planting begins to give products in the 3rd year. 5 and 7. years in full efficiency.

Yields for many years.

When the tree grows old and the yield decreases (20-30 years), the trunks are cut and the trunks are rejuvenated by forming new shoots.

Pomegranates require hot and dry weather conditions as well as moist and cool soil conditions.

Pomegranate water is essential when rainfall is not enough.

Regular, irrigated (10-15 days apart) is of great importance in order to obtain quality and abundant products and to prevent the fruit from cracking.

Time and quantities of pomegranate watering should be adjusted well. Incomplete or excessive or irrigations may show cracks in the fruit peel

The bees are usually irrigated by the pan and furrow method.

Ideal for drip irrigation, mini spring or infiltration.

It should be watered in abundance especially during the period of the development of fruit buds and flower buds.

When the fruit ripens, watering should be stopped 10-15 days before my skin.

SOIL PROCESSING IN Pomegranate Cultivation

Soil processing in pomegranates is carried out as in other fruits.

The first years of the soil by plowing the soil as much as possible to help the development of trees and we aimed to provide control.

In other years, soil tillage, weed control and aeration of the soil should be done without damaging the roots of the tree.

COMBATING DISEASES AND PESTS IN Pomegranate Growing

The most important disease is that some fungi cause decay in pomegranate fruits.

Diseases can be prevented to a great extent by applying some classical cultural procedures. The application of fungicides in a period close to maturity prevents the rotting of the fruits to be stored for a long time.

The most important pests of pomegranates are rats and they damage especially in sweet pomegranates and near maturity.

Aphids, pomegranate white fly, mealybug, crusty lice, red spiders, Mediterranean fruit fly, pomegranate worm, pests such as underground pests are common in general.

FRUIT CRACKING IN Pomegranate Cultivation

Pomegranate fruit cracking usually occurs during maturity and the amount of fruit cracking increases as the maturity progresses.

Due to this problem, high yield losses can occur and even 50% product losses may occur.

It is recommended to use crack-resistant varieties for the control of fruit cracking, regular and adequate irrigation, timely and several times of skin, protection of the fruits from sunlight, avoiding excessive nitrogen fertilization and avoiding hard pruning.

Pomegranate Harvesting

Pomegranate fruits; It can be collected starting from the period when the fruit takes on the color and size of the variety, the calyx segments in many varieties (the ends of which look like the crown of the fruit) open out and the male organ strands on the fruit dry.

Pomegranate harvest, depending on varieties and regions, but usually begins in late August.

It continues until mid-November.

Pomegranate ripening due to flowering in different periods is also in different periods.

Therefore, pomegranate harvest should be done 2-3 times.

Harvest should be finished before early frost and rainfall and done with scissors.

Pulling by hand causes damage to the fruit and branch.

Harvested fruits should be left to the crates in a soft way and care should be taken not to damage the calyx part.

Calyx is very important in terms of allure of fruit.

The pomegranate, which matures at different times, should be harvested 2-3 times and finished before rainfall.

PACKING

Packaging of pomegranates is very important for marketing. Selection of fruits,

grading and packaging is important especially for export in terms of market.

Selection and grading of pomegranates is more convenient by hand.

Fruits should not be in contact with each other and packaging containers with slots suitable for fruit diameter should be arranged in a single row with calyx segments on top or all in the same direction.

STORAGE

Pomegranate preservation is very important after harvest. Because export in a wide period

It may be sold 2-3 times more than the harvest period.

Pomegranates can be stored in plastic bags in cold storage, 5-6 months at 6 C and 85-90% relative humidity, or 6-7 months at 0 C and 85-90% humidity in specially modified atmosphere bags.