Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Pests Diseases Flowers Products Deficiencies Subject

CITRUS GROWING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Low temperatures are the most important factors limiting the spread of citrus fruits.

Both low and high temperatures negatively affect fruit yield and quality in citrus fruits.

Citrus fruits are highly affected by low temperatures. Lemon is the most sensitive species to the cold.

Lemon at 0 ° C, orange at -2 ° C, Altintop at -3 ° C, mandarins are damaged at -4 ° C.

If the frost event lasts longer, the damage increases accordingly.

Frost damage depends on whether the tree is fruiting or not. Fruity tree freezes immediately and more.

12-13 0C temperature is required for the growth of citrus fruits.

  In this period, the growth of the above-ground organs (vegetative parts) of citrus fruits begins.


In case of deficiency, please use one of our products or search for the following.

To avoid deficiencies, use regularly as the first leaves are up to the sparrow beak.

Zinc deficiency in citrus growing

Zinc deficiency in citrus and zinc deficiency is the most common nutrient in citrus trees.

Especially zinc deficiency caused by excess phosphorus is very common in Citrus.

Symptoms are seen if the leaves contain less than 25 ppm Zn.

The symptoms manifest as irregularly shaped, yellow spots around the green veins.

Shrunken, narrowed and chlorous leaf also occurs in the met.

In the shoots, the knuckle spacing is very short.

These images are more common in south-facing directions of trees.

Fruits are dehydrated and tasteless.

Potassium deficiency in citrus cultivation

Potassium deficiency in citrus, yellowish brown necrosis occurs on the edges of the leaves, curling backwards and shedding without ripening are observed.

Fruits become smaller than normal, thin-shelled and acidic.

Potassium deficiency in the trees turgor pressure drops and water stress when plants become loose textures.

  Drought and frost resistance weakens.

Similarly, plants are much more sensitive to disease agents and salty soil conditions.

Abnormal developments are seen in plant tissues and cell organelles.

The formation of xylem and phloem tissues in the plant regresses.

Tissue ligninization is reduced.

As a result, the body weakens in potassium deficiency.

Nitrogen deficiency in citrus growing

Nitrogen deficiency in citrus causes trees not to grow.

Nitrogen deficiency in the period is manifested by the fact that the leaves are light green and yellow.

Shoots are short, weak, thin and irregularly die in shoots in different parts of the tree.

Fruits become small, light colored, thick rind and ripen early.

Boron deficiency in citrus cultivation

Boron deficiency in citrus,

The young leaves of citrus species have semi-transparent spots.

The veins are thick, cracked and corky.

Fading, curling inwards and death starting at the tips are seen in young leaves.

Glues are seen in shoots and fruit stalks.

Fruits become small and hard.

Brown spots inside and outside the fruit glue droplets are seen.

The fruit is dehydrated and thick-shelled.

Flower dump is seen.

Magnesium deficiency in citrus growing

Symptoms seen in the varieties of magnesium deficiency in citrus, old leaves around the main vessel starts as a color discoloration.

Leaves gradually expand to yellow.

  Leaf tips retain their green color.

Early shedding of leaves.

Iron deficiency in citrus cultivation

In citrus iron deficiency, the symptoms of chlorosis (jaundice) begin with slight jaundice on the young leaves of fruit trees.

Typical signs of iron deficiency are the yellow to yellowish-white discoloration of the veins, leaving the veins green.

Depending on the soil and weather conditions, chlorotic symptoms on young leaves begin to spread rapidly on older leaves.

As the disease progresses, reddish and brown dry spots appear on the edges of the leaves and often cover the entire perimeter of the leaf.

Leaves that quickly turn yellow and covered with stains fall off over time.

Chlorinated trees do not dry out immediately.

However, as a result of jaundice and defoliation, the plant's assimilation area decreases and the physiological balance of the plant is disturbed.

The growth slows down, adversely affects flowering, leads to a decrease in yield and drying occurs if no measures are taken.

Soil and leaf analysis is appropriate to determine deficiency.

Phosphorus deficiency in citrus cultivation

In citrus, phosphorus deficiency trees create a dull green leaf system which does not stand alive.

Necrosis is seen in old leaves and shed early.

Flowering is very weak.

Fruit number is very small, fruits are coarse but minus, coarse fibrous texture and thick spongy rind.

Symptoms of citrus varieties, aged

The color of the leaves around the main vein begins in the form of opening.

Leaves gradually expand to yellow.

Leaf tips retain their green color.

Early shedding of leaves.

Manganese deficiency in citrus cultivation

Symptoms of Manganese deficiency in citrus are similar to magnesium deficiency.

Yellowing occurs between the veins in the leaves.

However, magnesium deficiency symptoms are first seen in old leaves, manganese deficiency is seen in young leaves.

In manganese deficiency, in addition to intravenous chlorosis, yellow spots appear on the leaves.

The frequency and severity of manganese deficiency also depends on seasonal conditions.

Deficiency is generally severe in cold and rainy seasons.

Under these conditions, the metabolic activity of the root decreases and manganese intake decreases.




It is sprayed against fly-blight, Anthracnose, Citrus branch blight and brown fruit rot.
Floury lice, red shelled lice, stellar, rust bug, scabies, bud flowing detection studies are performed, if necessary, after the application is sprayed.
In over-fruited trees, the forks given to the branches that can be broken from the fruit load are checked, if missing, they are completed.
Fruit harvest is continued. For any reason, the collection of spilled fruits continues.
Harvest of frost sensitive varieties should be finished. To prevent frost, the heating devices should be placed in the garden or the irrigation systems should be reviewed


Do pest detection in the garden; spray after harvest if necessary.
Fight against snails, mice and other rodents.
Pruning is necessary in the trees.
Do not pruning cold and frost-damaged trees. Wait for the drying damage to stop backwards to be pruned.
After pruning, apply for the treatment of fly-blight, citrus branch blight, anthracnose and brown fruit rot.
Drip irrigation is used in NITROGEN.
MARCH Nitrogenous fertilizer application should be completed earlier this month
Zinc, Borzinc, Calcium is used from the leaves before flowering. Apply with plant nutrition.
Fight against snails, mice and other rodents.
Rejuvenation work is done.
If irrigation is required, it should be remembered that water should be given very little.
1% Bordeaux slurry is applied or sprayed on exposed thick roots, tree trunks and thick branches.
APRIL Insufficient soil moisture can reduce the amount of product.
Zinc, Borzinc, Calcium is used from the leaves before flowering. Apply with plant nutrition. For this reason, soil moisture should be controlled and irrigation should be started if necessary.
Descaling in soil, pH lowering is used. The fight against the bud mite begins.
Aphids (Aphid, Puseron) is made. Struggle with cephalopods, mice and other rodents.
Varieties that are decided to be changed are changed.
Necessary technical procedures are applied to the trees that require special maintenance.
Hormone application is done if necessary.
If green manure plants (Legumes) are planted, the mixing of them into the soil starts.
MAY Irrigation is done in the amount required by the trees.
Drip irrigation Nitrogen fertilization is continued.
If deficiency is seen, MANGANESE, ZINC, FERRIC, MAGNESIUM, BORZİNC are used.
Apply with plant nutrition.
Bud mite, Flower moth, Scabies struggle is done. Towards the end of this month, there will be a fight against the runners.
Aphid control is done.
JUNE Chemical weed control begins.
Technical procedures continue to be applied to trees requiring special maintenance.
Drip irrigation Nitrogen fertilization is continued. If deficiency is seen, MANGANESE, ZINC, FERRIC, MAGNESIUM, BORZİNC continue to be used.
Apply with plant nutrition.
Air troughs are opened and gum is cleaned.
The trunks of the trees whose trunk is open to sunlight are whitewashed and wrapped in paper.
If moss and lichen are formed in the trunk and branches of trees that do not see sun and branches, 1% Bordeaux slurry is sprayed or applied.
Mixing of the plants (Legumes) planted for green fertilization should be finished.
Dry branch pruning begins. Variety change continues Alternaria disease struggle is done in Minneola tangels.
JULY Watering is continued. Drip irrigation Nitrogen fertilization is continued.
If lack is observed, Drip irrigation Balanced, MANGANESE, ZINC, FERRIC, MAGNESIUM, BORZİNC continue to be used.
Weed control continues with chemical method.
Pest control is continued. If the air troughs are not opened, they are opened and the air troughs which are broken due to various reasons are repaired.
Dry branch pruning is continued.
Spilled fruit on the ground is sought for petrification virus disease.
Alternaria disease is struggling. 
AUGUST Watering is continued. Drip irrigation Balanced fertilization is continued.
Used in drip irrigation POTASSIUM, CALCIUM.
Nova bezeri varieties are applied against cracking potassium-calcium leaves.
Pest control is continued.
If the air troughs are not opened, they are opened and the air troughs which are broken due to various reasons are repaired.
Dry branch pruning is continued.
Spilled fruit on the ground is sought for petrification virus disease.
Minneola Tanjelolorda Alternaria disease is struggling.
SEPTEMBER Carob moth, Kosniller and Mites struggle.
Mediterranean Fruit Fly control is done, if necessary, is struggled.
Weed control continues in chemical way.
Alternaria disease observations and control are made.


Nova-like varieties against cracking potassium - calcium is applied from the leaves.
Runs, Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Leaf Lice, Leaf Fleas, Mice and Other Rodents struggle.
Virus and virus-like diseases are controlled.
In order to delay the harvest of some varieties, hormone application is made. Cold and frost protection devices are placed in the garden.
Alternaria disease observations and control are made.
NOVEMBER ZINC or phosphorus fertilization is done.
A 1% Bordeaux slurry is applied to protect against fly blight, Anthracnose, Citrus branch blight and Brown fruit rot diseases.
Mediterranean Fruit Fly struggle is ended.
Spilled fruit should be taken out of the garden and destroyed.
Control of virus and virus-like diseases is maintained.
Alternaria disease observations and control are made.
DECEMBER Drip irrigation POTASSIUM, Drip irrigation PHOSPHORUS and farm manure is applied.
Low and high yield trees should be identified.
Preparations are made for winter spraying.
Spilled fruit is taken out of the garden and destroyed.
Mice and other rodents continue to fight.
In lemons, control and control are made against the trunk and main branch gums.

Important note:

Always use Wet spreader glue if your irrigation or spray water has a pH of 8 - 8.5 every time you spray your garden. (Soil and water pH in many regions of our country is up to 8- 8.5 or even up to 9.) All drugs produced are produced according to the pH range of 6-7. Even the best quality medicines lose their effect by up to 30%, from 6 to 15 minutes. Buddha will reduce the effect of your medicine.

For this reason, our advice to your holder, tank or back pump,


1 PH DECREASING ADHESIVE  It reduces the pH of the spraying water and prevents the deterioration of the drug. Once the medicines are applied to the plant, it allows the drug to spread to the leaf and prevents it from flowing through the leaves.
2 PLANT FOOD Provides smooth and balanced nutrition of the plant. It makes the fruits attractive, bright, colorful, large, durable, hard, heavy, tasty and pleasantly fragrant.
3 INSECTICIDES Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, according to the pest period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
4 FUNGUSİT MUSHROOM (After mixing in a separate containerZarar) Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, depending on the disease period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
5 OTHER Other trace elements recommended by technical staff.  

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

LIME SOLVENT It should be used in calcareous soils at the beginning of the season. Lime wrapped around capillary roots destroys the creamy layer. Soil bound iron, phosphorus and phosphates are released in the soil, the plant uses them. you do not need to use iron and phosphorus fertilizers repeatedly. 1 Kg drip irrigation per hectare
PLANT FOOD First application before flowering,
second application in fruit attitude,
The third application is done 45 days before harvest
Two applications with 300 gr / 100 lt water in all periods required.
200-300 cc
ZINC Apply when eyes explode and flowering is over. The most important time to apply the fruit is collected (before the leaves fall yet) configure. It allows the accumulation of zinc in the eyes of next spring and healthy new shoots. 125-150 cc
DRIP IRRIGATION NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, BALANCED, POTASSIUM It should be used regularly every semester. NPK of the plant must be met 2-3 kg
ORGANIC Organic based drip irrigation and release irrigation fertilizer. Fifteen days apart. One empty, one full watering or split quantities full watering Dönüme
5-7 kg

Foliar fertilizer should be used in every application. Leaf fertilizers prevent plants from getting stressed. It meets the micro element needs of plants. Improves fruit set and quality of fruits.


Phoma Tracheiphila
Tristeza Closterovirus
F. Sp.
hthora Citrophthora
Pseudomonas Syringae
Lemon Sieve-Tube
Rosellinia Necatrix
Penicillium Digitatum
Citrus Crinkly Leaf
A. aurantii (Mask.)
Aleurothrixus Floccosus
Comlus Pseudomag
Ectomyelois Ceratoniae
Ceroplastes Rusci
Lepidosaph Beckii
Phyllocnistis Citrella
Ceroplastes Flpridensis

lemons, the temperature of the growth period drops to 6-7 0C. Development increases with increasing temperature. The growth is accelerated between 18-20 ° C.

Growth reaches the peak at 26-28 0C. In this period, photosynthesis efficiency reaches the highest level.

Growth stops at temperatures above 30 ° C.

Among citrus fruits, mandarins are the most resistant to high temperatures.

Then there are golden balls, laymen and oranges.

Lemon is the most resistant to high temperatures.

Another important climate factor for citrus is wind.

The wind both damages citrus with its intensity (breakage of trees, fruit breakdown) and coldness.

Therefore, citrus orchards should be protected against the prevailing winds.

Citrus orchards should be installed on the protected slopes of rugged areas, or windbreakers should be planted on the edges of the garden before planting.

In order to do this, especially the sprawling services should be planted at 1 meter intervals.


Suitable soils for citrus fruits; sandy, sandy - loam, loamy, clayey loam soils which are light and medium heavy, well drained, loose and well ventilated.

Ideally, sandy and loamy soils are well filtered and well ventilated.

Aeration of the soil is very important for citrus fruits.

Because citrus roots require high levels of oxygen and if they are airless, they are immediately drowned. Roots in citrus 30-90 cm. depth.

As the aeration of the soil falls, the roots reach the soil surface. Citrus roots in suitable environments horizontally 7-5 m. can spread up to.

The depth of soil to be established in citrus garden is at least 1.5-2 m. should be.

There should be no impermeable clay layer to this depth and there should be no ground water problem. Before planting, soil samples should be taken at least in depths of 30 cm up to 120 cm.

If the slope is 3% or more in the place where the garden will be established, terracing should be done in the soil.

In citrus, it is desirable to have a slightly acidic soil PH.

The ideal pH is 6. Citrus roots are poisoned by the effect of heavy metals and elements accumulated as PH goes below 5 and goes above 7.5.

For example, as PH goes below 5, Mn is transported in the plant in large amounts.

When pH exceeds 7.5, FE, Zn, Mn deficiencies occur.

They are still waters in a dangerous situation for citrus fruits. Still waters are pond or groundwater.

Citrus fruits don't like too much water.

If there is no drainage in a garden, excess water accumulates with winter rains and irrigation water.

Still water ; salts, sulphates, carbonates and the like. dissolves around the root oxygen-free, low pH and creates a saline environment.

Citrus orchard

Suitable climate (temperature and wind)

Proper soil (well ventilated, with drainage, no ground water problem, deep and efficient, sandy - loam structure) Adequate and high quality water for irrigation Choosing the proper rootstock is very important.


For citrus cultivation, virus-free, certified seedlings should be used.

Before planting, the soil should be leveled and the hard impermeable layer known as plow base must be broken.

The best time to break this layer is in September when the soil is dry.

There should be a clean water source in the garden.

The fence should be pulled to the edge of the garden. Windbreakers should be made for protection from cold wind inside the garden.

The root of windbreakers should not spread too wide so that they do not become common to bsin. The most suitable plant is poplar (cypress).

The cypress to be used must be scattered crowned and evergreen.

Windbreakers should be established before planting seedlings.

Soil should be applied with a herbicide before planting (in January - February).

Weeds are used to combat weeds with special citrus medicines.

Supply of Saplings

The supply of seedlings is very important in citrus cultivation. Because the return of seedlings is not possible if the supply is made incorrectly.

Our manufacturers must be very sensitive.

In the purchased saplings, a certificate indicating that it is free from viruses and virus-like diseases should be sought.

Saplings should be taken from certified production places.

It is not seen that young people are infected with viruses and virus-like diseases.

These diseases appear several years later.

If the seedlings are infected with viruses and virus-like diseases, in later periods;

Fruit quality deteriorates.

The product is reduced.

The life of the tree is shortened.

Development weakens.

Some die in advanced circuits.

The effect of other diseases and pests increases.

The seedlings should be grafted on the rootstocks suitable for the soil characteristics of the land to be established.

Citrus is used as rootstock in the Mediterranean region.

However, in the trials conducted in Çukurova region, Carrizo performed better than strange orange.

However, Carrizo rootstock is used in citrus rootstocks because it is very sensitive to Evocortis disease (Dwarf virus disease) and does not grow in high pH soils.

steza (migrating virus disease) is very sensitive to virus disease.It is not recommended on the Mediterranean coastline because it is sensitive to three-leaved lime.

It should be noted that the varieties showing the characteristics suitable for our region are grafted on the rootstock of the seedlings taken.

The root system and above ground parts of the seedlings should be well developed.

The knot (camel neck) caused by the error of the seedling root throat should not be present.

The root of the seedlings to be planted must be large and grounded.

When the bag seedlings are used, excess roots of the seedlings that curl inwards should be cut due to the stenosis.

Seedlings that grow more vegetatively, should be cut from 20-25cm in order not to lose water with excessive sweating.


The intervals to be given during planting in citrus fruits are determined according to the selected species and the tree size of the variety.

Planting intervals vary between 5x5m and 8x8m depending on the crown size of the trees.

Planting distances are the least species mandarins, while the most species are goldballs.


Mandarins 5x5m, 6x6m,

Oranges7x7m Jaffa and Valencia (8x8m)

Goldballs7x7m or 8x8m

Opening of Planting Pits

Square, rectangular and triangular planting can be done for citrus fruits.

But planting should not interfere with cultural processes such as tillage, irrigation, spraying.

For this you should wish to prefer square planting.

The tree species of the selected species and varieties, the slope of the land and cultural processes to be applied to the planting areas are selected, marked and pit opening is passed.

In large gardens, pits should be drilled.

However, when drilling a pit with auger, a layer of cream is formed on the side walls of the pit. This hard layer should be taken with a waist or shovel.

Digging and digging with shovels is the most common method in small areas.

The dimensions of the pits to be opened generally vary according to the structure of the soil.

35-40cm diameter and 35-40cm depth pits are sufficient for citrus varieties.


Citrus saplings are made in the back to be planted.

Before planting the seedlings, mortar should be prepared.

Two shovels of well-burned farm manure and 200gr 3x15 manure can be used for this purpose.

These materials are thrown onto the soil beside the opened pit and mixed with sufficient surface soil.

The mixture is filled into the pit to the level where the seedlings will be placed.

Seedlings brought in plastic tube should be watered 1 day before.

The plastic bag is cut away from both sides.

The roots of the seedlings are checked.

If the pile formed at the root bottom is bent and bent, this part is cut off.

All cutters such as pocket knives and scissors to be used in the root and stem of the seedlings should be sterilized by immersion in 2% sodium hypochlorite solution before use.

Especially in young gardens, strictly sterile tools should be used.

Because exocortis and cachexia diseases in our region are carried by vaccination eyes and cutting tools.

The most suitable planting time in our region is February-March.

After the roots are cleaned, the seedlings are placed on the soil filled with stone and the planting is done. Citrus plant should not be planted deep.

After planting the soil should be compacted and at least 35-40 liters of water should be given per seedling.

A second irrigation should be done before the soil dries.

Planting should be done while the soil is annealed.


Seedlings should be watered every 10-15 days, depending on the soil type, until they hold firmly.

After planting the seedlings should be cut from 60 cm in order to create a stable and stable crown.

The distance between the vaccination point and the cutting site should be 5-6cm.

The stems of young seedlings should be wrapped with newspaper or thick paper to protect them from the damage of the sun.

As the seedlings grow, lime white should be made instead of paper.

Lime alone is a substance that is washed and spilled quickly when used alone.

For this, a small amount of white glue should be mixed into the lime.




Agricultural chemicals