Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

EGGPLANT GROWING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Eggplant is a warm climate vegetable and is affected by cold. When the temperature drops to minus 1-2 C in the growing cycle, the plant loses its life.

Since it is grown as an annual culture plant in warm climates, it does not freeze from seed sowing until the end of the harvest period and normally needs 15-35 C temperature for the product to grow and develop.

A good vegetation requires an average of 6 months of vegetation.

In places with tropical and subtropical climates, it is a small tree and is perennial. He loves water.

Regular irrigation is required in the growing cycle. Otherwise, the development slows down, yield decreases and most importantly, the fruit starts to bitter.

SOIL REQUESTS

Eggplant is a very selective vegetable in terms of soil. He doesn't like clay soils.

Root rot is common in such heavy and damp soils. Deep, soft, permeable, rich in organic matter and nutrient loam soils develops well and gives plenty of product. When earliness is considered, barnyard manure or loamy-sandy soils made of green manure are used.

Direct Seed Farming

In this aquaculture, seeds are planted directly to the prepared field and aquaculture is performed; however, this method is not recommended and not used because it is not very laborious and economical.

Seedling

Eggplant seeds are planted in hot cushions considering planting time in their main places in the garden or field. 5-6 g of seed per m2 is used in planting. Sowing in line. In particular, seedling is the best way to sow in order to form abundant fringe root.

For this purpose, seed is sown according to whether or not dilution is made to the lines opened with 10 cm intervals in hot cushions.

After the seed sowing, the seeds are covered with a mortar of 0.5 cm thickness and gently pressed with a wooden mallet. The seeds are then soaked in cans with strainer buckets until the seed is located.

Eggplant seeds begin to germinate after 10-15 days when the soil temperature is 25-30C on the hot pillow.

After the seeds germinate, a seedling is left on the row at 3-4 cm.

After that, the maintenance work to be done on the pillow seedlings, weeding, irrigation, ventilation and disease and pest control. If the seeds of the eggplant are planted, the seedlings obtained do not need to be surprised.

In recent years, instead of the production of hot cushions, the cultivation of grounded seedlings in viols has started to become widespread. Seedlings grown in viols are then planted grounded in their original locations.

Field Preparation

Soil to be cultivated eggplant is fertilized first. In autumn a deep version is made.

It is leveled by pulling a rake with a spring-faced version. After that, bobbins or pans are prepared according to the irrigation systems to be made in the growing stages of eggplant.

As in other countries, in our country, eggplants are watered by furrow (bobbin) method, and planting is done in single or double rows on the neck points of bobbins. For this purpose, single tubes are prepared in practice with a width of 0,40-0,50 m.

Row spacing varies between 0.70-1.00 m depending on the development force and soil condition of the variety. A distance of 0.50-0.60 m is usually left on the row.

Planting of seedlings to the field

Planting time of eggplant seedlings depends on the end of the spring frosts of the region.

The safest way is to plant the last spring frosts in the place where the planting will be done, considering the average of long years.

Seedlings of eggplants developed in viols or hot cushions should be grounded to their places prepared on the specified date.

After the eggplant seedlings are planted in the field, they are given water. When the planting time is hot, the eggplant seedlings show a lifeless landscape stuck to the soil face in the first days. Seedlings should not be called this state; because a week after planting the seedlings that are held are seen to come to life.

The seedlings that have not been kept in this circuit should be planted in their place.

Economic Importance

Eggplant is one of the important vegetables that are grown and consumed under the cover in summer and winter months in our country. Almost all of the eggplants produced in our country are consumed in the country.

Especially with the arrival of new varieties that can bind fruits at low temperatures, significant improvements have been made in production.

Botanical Features

Root

Seed germination occurs with a pile root. When the pile root is 3-5 cm tall, side roots form from the root throat.

The pile root is bifurcated after 8-15 cm height and the longitudinal growth of the pile root stops. After this period, the side roots develop.

7 weeks after planting seedlings in the field, it was determined that the aerial roots of the eggplants were 0.15-0.25 m, but there was a pile root going deep to 0.90 m. However, 70% of the roots are found at a depth of 0.40 m. 20% - 30% less than 0.40 m It goes down to 1.5 m. Soil

roots near the face propagate to the environment up to 0.80-1.20.

Trunk and Branches

From 4 to 5-leaf seedling period, the trunk starts to wood. Stem is very strong in developed plants. The average length of the plant is 0,60-1,0 m.

The body is round. It is composed of nonspecific nodes and nodules, it is hairless, less hairy and very hairy. Sometimes there are spines on it.

The trunk starts to branch after 4-5 knots. There are 4-8 side branches on one plant.

Secondary branches form from these side branches.

Thus, some varieties are splayed, very splayed crowned, some are bulk, long crowned.

Leaf

The leaves are small, narrow, thin and long or large and wide. Leaf edges are straight, may be fragmented, slightly slits.

The edges are generally straight. Dentistry is uncommon. Leaf and stem are green in color. In some varieties, the color changes to purple or occasionally shows bruises.

Flower

Eggplant flowers are biologically erselik. Flowers occur in leaf seats.

In some varieties, one in 2-3 nodes, some in each node. In some cases, 2-4 flower buds are rarely seen in a knuckle.

It is purple in color and usually has 5 flowers. 5 bowls, very large structure, green color, hairy or spiny on top.

The leaves do not shed in the forward circuit and continue to grow. Their number is sometimes 7-8. 5 petals are light blue, blue or light purple.

The number of petals can also vary and goes up to 6-8. Male organs are yellow unified state.

The number of male organs is 5-8. The female organ is surrounded by male organs.

The female organ stands in three different ways with male organs as in tomatoes. Foreign fertilization increases if the female organ goes up. Self-fertilization rate is 60-80%.

Male organs come to maturity before fertilization. It is most active when full flower is opened. Some flowers until 1-2 days after the opening of the flower is reduced fertilization of flower powders can reduce activity.

The eggplant does not require a special day length for the beginning of flowering, but requires a higher minimum temperature than tomato.

Eggplant flowers are normally self-pollinated; however, when enough bees are found, foreign pollination sometimes occurs.

Fruit

Eggplant fruits; long thin, pointed, long cylindrical, blunt or pointed, long egg, round, flattened round shape can be.

Fruit length is very different.

The average is 20-30 cm. Fruit diameter is 2-6 cm in long varieties and 8-12 cm in round varieties. Fruit weight is 50-400g.

Weight in round varieties up to 500-1000 g.

The color of the fruit varies from light purple to dark black.

Sometimes white and light red eggplants are also encountered.

Bad conditions during growth, fiber and wood cause causes. 10-30 pieces or even more fruits from a plant can be taken.

Eggplant Diseases and Pests

Bacterial Speckle Disease (Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato)

White rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)

Collapsing Disease (Rhizoctonia spp., Fusarium spp., Alternaria spp., Sclerotinia spp.)

Early Blight Disease (Alternaria solani)

Lead Mold Disease (Botrytis cinerea)

Powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica)

Mildiyö Disease (Phytophthora infestans)

Tomato Mosaic Virus Disease (Tomato Mosaic Virus)

Gray Worm (Agrotis Spp.)

Flower Tripsi (Frankliniella Occidentalis)

Danaburnu (Gryllotalpa Gryllotalpa)

Red Spiders

Cotton Leafworm (Spodoptera Littoralis)

Stinky Green Beetle (Nezara Viridula)

Greenhouse White Fly (Trialeurodes Vaporariorum)

Wormwood (Agriotes Spp.)

Aphids

Leaf Gallery Flies (Liriomyza Trifolii, Liriomyza Bryoniae, Liriomyza Huidobrensis)

Green wolf [Heliothis Armigera, Heliothis Viriplaca (= Heliothis Dipsacea]