Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

SUGAR BEET GROWING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

To produce more abundant, high quality and economic sugar and sugar beet, which is such an important nutrient in every period of human life in our country and in the world, and to increase producer income; How and when all the operations from stubble and autumn to spring preparation, fertilization, sowing, maintenance, struggle, irrigation, harvesting and silo should be well known by the manufacturer.

Beet seeds are small and should be protected during germination and initial development because the resulting sprout is delicate.

Soil compaction (cream layer), frost pests weed medicines, sprout fungal diseases should be followed carefully.

Soil cultivation should be deep, water layer should not accumulate in the root depth.

Sufficient temperature must be present in the first development.

During the ripening period, beets are adversely affected by high temperatures (especially at night temperatures).

PLANT FOOD DEFICIENCY, SYMPTOMS, REMOVAL AND FERTILIZATION IN BEET GROWING

In case of deficiency, please use one of our products or search for the following.

To avoid deficiencies, use regularly as the first leaves are up to the sparrow beak.

Zinc deficiency in sugar beet cultivation

  newly emerging leaves become yellowish green color.

If the deficiency is iron, the leaf blade becomes whitish, while the veins and leaf stems retain their green color for a while.

This image is called white spot disease in beet. Warm, sunny weather increases this symptom.

Zinc deficiency occurs in extremely alkaline soils (p H 9.0 and above).

Sugar beet is less sensitive to this element than corn and legumes.

In deficiency, the development of the leaves slows and the young leaves in the middle show a yellowing.

Yellow or whitish spots occur between the veins on the upper surface of the leaf.

The veins of the leaf then dry, but the veins remain green and raised.

Zinc deficiency is seen in Turkey, especially in the citrus areas in South and Central Anatolia beet acreage.

Potassium deficiency in sugar beet cultivation

leaves are bluish green in color and curved downwards.

Between the veins, there are shades of color ranging from yellow to reddish brown.

The color changes progress from the old leaves and the edges of the leaves and eventually the leaves fade and die.

Potassium-deficient sugar beet is usually dull green, slightly curved and yellowing around the edges.

When the deficiency increases, the yellowed areas expand to become reddish brown.

Potassium is easily displaced within the plant. Therefore, symptoms first appear on older leaves and then on younger leaves.

Even if the new leaves remain green, they are small and underdeveloped. Sodium deficiency symptoms are similar.

The symptoms of potassium and sodium deficiency are difficult to distinguish from the symptoms of magnesium deficiency.

Leaf or soil analysis should be made.

The inadequacy of these two nutrients usually occurs when excessive phosphorus or nitrogen is used.

A real shortcoming may occur especially on light sandy or organic-rich soils or on newly processed poor meadow soils.

Fertilization to be done as a result of soil analysis eliminates this deficiency.

There is sufficient potassium in the soil of our country.

Nitrogen deficiency in sugar beet cultivation

Nitrogen fertilization is not done, organic matter is found in the beach areas are weak.

Such deficiency can be easily and quickly remedied by the addition of nitrate.

Nitrogen is essential for plant development.

By increasing the leaf area, it provides a good coating of the soil surface, thus preventing moisture loss from the soil. Increases excess nitrogen development.

Although a small amount of weight gain is provided in the root, it reduces the sugar content.

The optimal amount of fertilizer depends on the type of soil and the front plant removed.

Nitrogen supplied by fertilization is a supplement to the nitrogen source in the soil.

Symptoms of nitrogen deficiency may occur if the root is ineffective due to soil hardness or if the root is airless due to flooding.

Turkey soils, nitrogen sources in organic matter in the soil, which is usually poor.

Boron deficiency in sugar beet cultivation

Among the diseases caused by it, self-rot in beets is the most well known.

Boron deficiency in beets is seen especially in dry years and after long dry periods.

In this regard, particular attention should be paid to adjusting the irrigation intervals where boron deficiencies are a problem.

In the event of deficiency, growth first regresses, young leaves form close to each other and tare towards the bottom l are.

Yellowish green and yellow spots occur between the veins. Leaves curl.

It consists of gray-dark brown blisters, similar to the bark of the wound on the stalks of young and middle leaves.

Self-rot, which begins in the form of brown rings in the tuber, kills the tissues completely as it progresses, and a black rotten part occurs in the beet.

Self rot increases during storage.

Self rot causes very serious product loss.

Magnesium deficiency in sugar beet cultivation

leaves take a yellow image of moire.

The color change starts from the ends and edges of the leaves and spreads inwards.

Brown colored necrosis occurs.

Leaves hang.

This image is similar to the symptom created by the beet yellow virus, only the virus symptom shows a more uniform spread from the edges.

In the lack of magnesium in beets, yellowing between the veins and curl inwards are seen on the leaves near the upper edge.

In over-affected plants, the symptoms progress towards the middle of the leaves and the edges of the leaves turn black.

Symptoms caused by mild magnesium deficiency are similar to yellowing caused by the virus effect, and if the virus effect starts early, these symptoms can be confused with each other.

However, the difference between the two can be distinguished as follows: The yellowing caused by the virus is bright and light orange.

The leaf thickens and breaks easily. These symptoms do not occur in magnesium deficiency.  

effect from the germination stage, irregular germination occurs.

Growth regresses and plants remain shorter than normal.

In contrast, the leaves are hard and upright

IIn some cases, the leaf stems lie flat, parallel to the ground

The leaves are smaller than normal and are covered with purple or blackish brown spots.

Necrosis occurs on the leaf edges.

Old leaves turn yellowish green and die prematurely.

Manganese deficiency in sugar beet cultivation

young leaves become light, bright green background.

Chlorotic lesions occur in the form of nets or spots on old leaves.

Especially in old leaves, the veins maintain their dark green color.

The leaves are curled inward from the edges.

It usually begins to appear in the spring and small yellow spots appear on the leaves.

Yellowing can affect the entire leaf surface, with the exception of veins that remain light green.

These points were initially scattered, but then joined together to form larger spots.

In very serious cases, the plant develops slowly and leaves curl inward.

In most soils, the roots can go deeper and benefit from manganese in the soil, and the symptoms of manganese deficiency disappear automatically.

Calcium deficiency in sugar beet cultivation

the outer leaves appear normal, but the development of the more inner leaves slows down and often leaves little dried leaves and petioles.

Blackening occurs at the ends of the deformed and curled leaves, and this blackening is often referred to as 'tip proximity'.

In further cases, the young leaves become black, the growth point of the beet dies and begins to drive from the sides.

In this case, the transmission tissues in the root become brown.

  In lighter cases, the leaves are surrounded by a narrow brown or blackish line, where the growth slows down, while the normal growth of the lamina part continues and soils become spoons.

Calcium deficiency in soil is generally seen together with soil acidity which provides environment for nutrient toxicity and root burn.

There is enough calcium in the soil of our country. Because most of our soils are calcareous soils.

Magnesium deficiency in sugar beet cultivation

Causes of Magnesium Deficiency and Its Economic Importance

Magnesium deficiency is common especially in calcareous and light soils, but can also be seen in other types of soils.

Deficiency can be caused by two reasons.

This is a real shortcoming if the soil does not have enough magnesium to grow the plants.

If the amount of magnesium that can be taken is more than 50 ppm in the soil, this means that the soil is sufficient for magnesium.

If this amount is less than 25 ppm, there is magnesium deficiency for the plant.

Elements such as potassium, sodium calcium make it difficult to get magnesium from the soil.

The second insufficiency is the inability of the plants to prevent the growth of roots due to various nematodes, for example.

If the deficiency of magnesium is seen as a result of the analysis of soil samples taken before planting beets, magnesium should be applied.

If soil analysis cannot be carried out, it can be decided whether or not there are signs of magnesium deficiency in the anterior plant.

Magnesium fertilizers should be applied in autumn.

Liquid magnesium sulfate can be given from the top when the symptoms of magnesium deficiency are mild.

Manganese deficiency in sugar beet cultivation

Manganese is a trace element. taken by sugar beet The amount of angan is very small and in most soils there is a sufficient amount of manganese.

Therefore, manganese deficiency does not occur frequently. But manganese deficiency can be seen.

For example, due to the high soil pH, manganese deficiency may be seen if the plant has an insoluble manganese, drought or if the soil is rich in organic matter (after a large amount of organic fertilization or pasture areas have been plowed).

If manganese deficiency is advanced, sugar yield can be reduced to 30%.

The progression of symptoms can be prevented by applying manganese sulfate from the leaves.

This not only prevents the yield reduction due to manganese deficiency, but also prevents the negative effects of other insufficiencies and post-emergence herbicides.

Inadequacy does not occur in heavy soils or slightly acidic soils below pH 6.0, but manganese poisoning may occur if the soil is too acidic (below pH 5.0).

The fact that the leaves are light green and the growth slows are similar to the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency.

CLIMATE AND AIR FACTORS IN BEET BREEDING

Climatic factors are very important in terms of root yield and sugar in beet. Production in different climatic zones in our country shows different characteristics.

Beet yield is high in the regions close to the sea, whereas sugar is low.

Eastern Anatolia has a strong land climate and low root yield is high in sugar.

Root yield and sugar are normal in the Passage Areas.

In regions like Central Anatolia where climate is not very harsh, they are the best beet regions where both root yield and sugar are high.

LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE IN BEET BREEDING

Beet is a long day plant. Sunlight is very important for the formation of roots and sugar.

Although the heat may seem more important than the light at the first output, the higher the heat, the higher the light requirement. The ideal air temperature for development and sugar making is 23 - 25 ° C.

Temperature is very important for sugar formation a few weeks before harvest.

WATER IN BEET BREEDING

The seed bed must have sufficient moisture. In April - May, a slight drought allows the roots to go deeper and thus feeds the plant better in terms of water and nutrients.

With the development of leaves, the water requirement of beets increases. Water needs are high during development periods and irrigation should be done in areas with low rainfall.

SOIL IN BEET BREEDING

Soil beet cultivation of water and nutrients to hold the capacity of the soil to be very good, should not bind cream, should have a good soil depth.

The ideal soil for beet cultivation is rich in organic matter, deep, easily heated loam and loamy calcareous soils.

FIELD PREPARATION IN BEET BREEDING

Grain is the pre-recommended plant for sugar beet cultivation in our country.

The first process in soil preparation is the work that enables the plant residues to be enriched by organic matter (stubble disruption) after the pre-plant harvest. Stubble breaking and the first version must necessarily be done in the fall.

In order to make the first version healthy, it is necessary to apply the soil and mix the stubble before the shade annealing “soil moisture“ is removed immediately after the cereal harvest.

The most practical measure in this regard is that the soil that the plow has toppled is not in the form of a mold, but has a structure that can be dispersed at the time it is toppled.

Stubble should never be burned. For easy disintegration of the stubble, a quantity of urea fertilizer is mixed with the release to the soil and the soil is wetted if necessary.

This will accelerate the decay of the stubble.

In order to prevent the field from being cut and uneven, chisel must be used before deep version, and after deep version, rake or bolt should be pulled.

If there is a plow base, a bottom boiler plow must be pulled every 2 to 3 years before the first release.

After the stubble destruction, the field is left to its own condition before moving to the fall version.

If the field is grazed until the fall version before the winter (last version), the rake should be pulled out. Thus, water retention of the soil is ensured and weeds will be killed.

With this latest version before winter, the recommended spring fertilization according to soil analysis results is done at the same time.

SOIL PREPARATION IN THE FIRST SPRING:

Soil preparation in the spring is the most delicate task of sugar beet cultivation.

Pre-sowing soil preparation time, the type of equipment used in this work, the depth of the seed bed, the thickness and structure of the soil to remain on the seed and so on. it affects the yield and quality of sugar beet to be produced and thus the production economy.

As soon as the field pan comes in spring, seed bed preparation should be started immediately. In order to provide a normal (İntaş) output;

The seed bed must be cleared of stones, clods and plant residues.

Seed bed preparation in heavy annealing, fertilizer and (herbicides) against the application of pesticides should not be applied to weeds. 2/3 of the nitrogenous fertilizer should be discarded during the preparation of seed beds in spring, and if the selected weed medication is to be used, it should be made ready for field sowing by pulling rakes or combs. Rolling is also useful where needed.

In the spring field preparation, the number of pre-planting operations should be reduced as much as possible to prevent over-chewing of the soil.

The ideal seed bed preparation varies according to soil and climatic conditions, but the most important one is a homogeneous, thin, easy to ventilate, loose structure in the oven with a thin layer of 2.5-3 cm in the spring, under which it is processed in the spring 10 is the presence of a moist layer carrying water.

The top surface of this treated layer is the desired seed bed. After all these preparations, soil is prepared for planting.

VARIETY SELECTION IN BEET BREEDING

One of the most important factors affecting the yield and quality in sugar beet production is variety selection.

The following features should be considered when selecting the variety. Selected variety;

The planted area should be suitable for the climate and soil structure,

Resistant to diseases and to rise to seed,

Root and leaf yields should be high,

Germination power and field output should be good, lı,

It must be prepared according to the standards and sprayed with the required drugs,

It should be healthy, reliable and cheap,

OCTOBER IN BEET BREEDING

Sowing technique is an important factor affecting the yield and quality of sugar beet and farmer income.

Early sowing at a time when the risk of frost is largely avoided should always be preferred, as it prolongs beet growth and increases yield.

In order to ensure the perfect sowing, the seeding and selection and maintenance of the seeder must be done.

The distance between rows of rows and beets on rows significantly affects the root and sugar yields.

In our country, sugar beet is planted at a distance of 45 cm between rows and is generally singled out at a distance of 20 - 25 cm. 8000 - 9000 plants per 1 decare give the best results in trials.

Sowing rate is one of the important factors affecting the quality of sowing. When sowing with precision seeder, the speed of the tractor pulling seeder should not exceed 4 km / h.

Excessive speed causes irregular spillage of seeds, deterioration of depth settings, and keeping seeds on soil surface.

Sowing depth is also an important issue in terms of yield and quality.

Beet seeds should be planted at a depth of 2 to 5 cm, and should be checked continuously during sowing.

In our country, sowing is done in 5 • 8 and 15 cm row spacing with precision seeder.

Proper cultivation of beets provides great convenience in the use of hoeing and harvesting machines.

After normal planting, natural factors, seed variety, pests and diseases caused by the destruction of more than 40% of the number of beets should be planted in the field.

MAINTENANCE IN BEET BREEDING

All operations except for the struggle and irrigation which provide the development of beet from sowing to harvest, protection from weeds, diseases and pests are called maintenance.

Tell the maintenance operations you need to sort;

a) Dilution / misfire,

b) Hoeing,

c) Weed control,

d) Disease and Pest control.

A) Dilution and misfire:

The number of plants per unit area in a beet field, the good distribution of these plants on the surface, is an important factor affecting the yield and quality. When the beets reach the 4 • 5-leaf period, dilution-kicking is performed.

It is sufficient that the row spacing is 20 • 25 cm.

It is necessary to make sure that the beets are not damaged during misfire.

B) SHEARING:

If weed control is carried out with medication, hoeing is done only to ventilate the soil of the beet.

Hoeing prevents evaporation, makes the soil warmer more quickly and ensures that the rain water tillages in a regular distribution. In our country, 1 or 2 anchors are sufficient.

It is made by hand or machine. Be careful not to damage the side roots of the beet hoe, remove excess clods and beet should not be chewed.

7) IRRIGATION:

Sugar beet is a plant that needs more water. It is a plant that needs water in certain intervals and amounts from sowing to harvest period.

Irrigation periods;

A) INTAS IRRIGATION:

It is done after sowing after rainfall and soil loss.

B) DEVELOPMENT PERIOD IRRIGATION:

It should be done between the end of June and mid-September.

C) PRE-HARVEST IRRIGATION:

The soil is made to be annealed, it is divided into three as irrigation to facilitate harvesting and prevent root breakage.

The number of irrigation should be done 4-6 times by observing the improvement in the plant.

Giving water to the field (irrigation methods) three in our country

The main groups are:

1) Keel Irrigation

a) Surface Irrigation

b) Furrow Irrigation

2) Sprinkler Irrigation

3) Drip Irrigation

In keel irrigation, irrigation costs are low. However, it requires a lot of water and sprinkler is less effective than irrigation.

Drainage of the irrigated fields with keel irrigation should be done well.

Regardless of the irrigation method, it is most important to avoid excessive or insufficient irrigation in sugar beet irrigation.

Excessive irrigation causes root rot and some diseases, as well as waste of resources, and insufficient irrigation leads to increased plant growth and yield losses.

HARVEST IN BEET BREEDING

The process of removing, cleaning and cutting the leaves of beet is called HARVEST.

In our country, the beet harvesting process, which has been taking steps since the beginning of beet cultivation until today, is carried out with modern agricultural techniques and machines.

Beet ripening under normal climatic conditions continues until the end of September and mid-October. Harvest operations are mostly done without touching.

Beet harvester removal belt, one or two or three rows only dismantling disassembly, head cutting and dismantling machines only, head cutting, dismantling, storage and loading is done with machines.

Machine harvest has positive and negative aspects compared to manual harvest. Harvesting large areas at low cost in a short time is a positive aspect of machine harvesting.

The high costs of supplying the machine, more beet breakage during the harvest, damage and consequently the increase in losses are also negative aspects.

Harvest soil annealing, frequency and distribution of beets, the type of harvesting machine and the ability of the user and the leveling of the field and the absence of weeds are factors that facilitate machine harvesting.

DISEASES AND PESTS OF SUGAR BEET