Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Pests Diseases Flowers Products Deficiencies Subject

ONION CULTIVATION Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

In the early development stage of the plant there is a need for cool air.

The temperature must be high for the head attachment and the growth of the head.

The average temperature in the early development period should be 12.8 ºC.

Optimum temperatures of 21 ºC are required when the head starts to bind, and 24-27 ºC for maturing the head. Onion plant withstands temperatures of -8, -10 ºC.

Day length requests vary by varieties. Early cultivars require 10-12 hours and for transient cultivars 13-15 hours day length is required.

For the Mediterranean coast, short-day onions should be selected at the places where autumn cultivation is performed.


15 kg of pure nitrogen, 10 kg of pure phosphorus and 15 kg of pure potassium are required per decare to get 4-6 tons of onions per decare.

All phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium 1/3 of the planting is given as base fertilizer.

The remaining nitrogen and potassium fertilizers are given one month after sowing and the other part during the head forming period.


Onion cultivation is done in three ways.

1- Direct seed sowing: the same vegetation period is achieved in a period of 5-6 months.

2 - Kiska (shallot) made with aquaculture: This type of aquaculture 1. year shallots are obtained. In the 2nd year, the head is obtained by planting these shallots.

3- Seedling cultivation: Duration is the same as the method of seed sowing. The same year the head is obtained.

The most economical method is direct seed sowing. Machine farming is also suitable.

This method requires very good soil preparation in the field.

The field is processed at a depth of 15-20 cm in autumn. Before processing, 2-4 tonnes of burnt barn manure per decare is discarded.

Seed sowing in the Mediterranean region is the period from 15 August to 15 October.

Before planting, the soil is processed as soon as the pan comes.

The soil cultivator is ruptured thoroughly with a rake, then pressed and seeded. During sowing, 500 gr / da seed is used.

200 gr / da seed is used with pneumatic seeder. During planting soil temperature should be 10-12 ºC. Plant row spacing should be 20-30 cm.

When plants are 10 cm high, dilution is done manually to adjust the distance between rows.

The distance between rows should be 2-3 cm, and 5 cm for coarse varieties. Weed control should be made against weeds.


After 10-15 cm from the planting, the first anchor is made for the purpose of taking grass and embossing the soil.

Depending on the development of the plant can be made 3-4 anchors


If there is sufficient rainfall (450-500 mm) in the vegetation period in onion cultivation, it can be grown without irrigation.

Otherwise irrigation should be done. The most suitable irrigation method is sprinkler. 1-2 watering is sufficient.

Irrigation should not be done during head ripening period.


Fresh onions;

When the onions are 1-2 cm in diameter, they are removed. The upper leaves are cleaned and the roots are washed.

Marketed bundled


When the onions take a certain size and start to turn yellow leaves, the upper part is broken and laid.

After 15-20 days the outer leaves of the onions are completely dry, the onions are removed and removed. The soil is dried in the sun, keeping it on the face for 5-10 days.

The onion is removed by hand using an anchor.

The top dry stems of the harvested onions are cut off. Onions marketed in peat are not dried.