Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

SOYBEAN GROWING Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Soybean, which is a plant that contains 18-24% oil, 35-45% protein in its seeds and provides organic matter and nitrogen to the soil, is used both as main product and second product in our country.

It is planted as the second crop in irrigated agricultural areas of Aegean, Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolia regions.

OCTOBER TIME

If it will be sown as the main product, it can be sown from mid-April to mid-May.

In soybean cultivation, sowing time should be adjusted according to soil temperature.

Soil temperature should be at least 10-12 oC. 2. The crop should be finished within 10-15 days after the wheat harvest.

It should not exceed the first week of July at the latest. 2. In soybean cultivation, the delay in cultivation reduces yields and causes harvest to remain in the rainy period.

BACTERIA IMMUNIZATION

Soybean seed is inoculated into soybean seed before planting.

Inoculation of the seeds with this culture causes nodosity in the soybean roots.

This increases the yield and protein content of the product.

At the same time, less nitrogen fertilizer is used, and 6-7 kg of pure nitrogen per decare is collected with the nodosities in the roots and it is helped to leave nitrogen to the next plant after soybean.

In seed grafting, the following is taken into consideration.

The inoculation material should be fresh, the inoculated seeds should not be exposed to sunlight and should be kept in a cool and shade place until they are planted. 100 kg seed should be inoculated with 1 kg of water and 1 kg of bacteria.

OCTOBER

It should be done with drill. Row spacing 60 cm. No more than 4-5 cm. should be. Sowing depth 3-4 cm. The amount of seed to be discarded is 6-8 kg.

FERTILIZATION

Since the bacteria will be used in soybean cultivation, there is no need to give more nitrogen.

Recommended fertilizer content is 2.5 kg / da. pure nitrogen, 6 kg / da. pure phosphorus.

Amount to be given per decare according to fertilizer types:

1- 18-46% Diammonium phosphate 13-15 kg

2- 21% ammonium sulphate 12 kg 16-18% super phosphate 35 kg

3- 20% ammonium nitrate 13 kg 16-18% super phosphate 35 kg

4- 46-48% triple superphosphate 14 kg 20% ​​ammonium nitrate 13 kg

If a combined drill is to be sown, fertilizer is supplied with the sowing. If sowing is done with trowel, sprinkle before the disco and the disco is pulled and buried in the soil.

MAINTENANCE WORKS

The depth of planting is within 5-7 days depending on soil and air humidity and soil and air temperature.

IRRIGATION

Water requirement for maximum yield is 450-550 mm depending on climate and length of development period. between.

A good product should be given on time and with sufficient water.

Soya bean irrigation should be done in the following developmental periods.

1. Water: Plant length 8-10 cm. when

2nd water: When the first flowers start to appear

3rd water: When the lower pods begin to swell

4th water: It should be done 10-15 days after the 3rd water.

HOEING

It is best to carry out the weed control in the whole development period.

It is generally recommended for herbicide application before planting or before germination and post-emergence herbicide applications for weed control.

Intermediate hoeing should be done with tractor 2-3 times according to weed density in the field.

Especially after the first and second irrigation, weed growth is weakened due to plant density and often no third hoe is needed.

HARVEST

Harvesting is done with combine harvester. At harvest time, the yellowed leaves of the soybean dry and pour.

3-4 days after the fall of the leaves can be put into the field harvesters.

At the time of harvest, broad beans take a dirty yellow or brownish color.

The lower links are checked for harvesting. Grains are hardened and hard to break with teeth.

If the harvest time is delayed, the beans begin to crack and this will result in loss of crop.

Harvest of the main crop mid-September-end; the product can be made in the middle of October.

In order to reduce the moisture content after harvesting, the product should be dried in the sun or in the artificial dryers for 3-5 days.

If the seed moisture is less than 12% during the harvest and threshing process, the seeds break quickly, cause germination and loss of viability.

During harvesting, the speed of the harvester should be slow and run at the lowest speed.

If the seed is mixed with foreign substances, it should be cleaned, if the humidity is higher than 14%, it should be ventilated in the shade and dried and lowered after storage.