Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

Peanut Growing

Peanut seeds are a valuable source of nutrients for humans and animals with the fat, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and mineral substances it contains. Although it varies according to the varieties, it contains 44-56% oil. After removing the oil, the remaining meal contains about 45% crude protein, 24% non-nitrogenous substances and 5.5% mineral substances.

CLIMATE REQUEST

Peanut is a summer and warm climate plant. It needs a total temperature of 3000-4500oC during the growing period. When the soil temperature reaches 15-20oC, peanut planting should be started.

Total precipitation of 500-600 mm during the growing period is sufficient for peanut. However, this precipitation must be distributed to the growing period. If the peanut plant is deprived of dehydration for a long time, the seeds in the capsules do not fully develop and consequently the yield is low.

SOIL REQUEST

The structure of the soil to be grown peanuts is very important. Well-drained, loosely structured, sandy-loam, calcium-rich soils with moderate organic matter are ideal soils. Soil pH should be between 6.0-6.4. Seeds that cannot receive Ca minerals in acidic soils with a pH less than 5.9 do not normally develop and do not like peanut calcareous soils.

SOIL PREPARATION

Plow 20-25 cm in the fall. depth is driven. Soil that passes through the winter is mixed with a cultivator in spring. Then the surface of the soil is pressed by worshiper or roller. The field where the peanuts will be planted should not be processed before the soil comes to the pan. The clods formed during tillage prevent the peanut needles (ginophore) from entering the soil.

FERTILIZATION

Peanut is one of the plants that best evaluate nutrients in the soil. It removes the most Nitrogen, Potash and Calcium from the soil.

Nitrogen Fertilization

Nitrogenous fertilizer application is not needed if peanut farming is carried out in the same place for many years. This is due to the Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots.

In a growing season, peanuts accumulate approximately 4.5-15 kg / ha of nitrogen thanks to Rhizobium bacteria, a large part of this nitrogen is used by the plant and 30-40% remains in the soil.

4-6 kg / ha Nitrogenous fertilizer (pure substance) should be applied together with planting in places where peanut is grown or bacteria inoculated for long years. If there is sufficient nodosity formation in the plant roots during the flowering period, there is no need for upper fertilization.

If bacteria are not vaccinated in places where new peanuts are planted, 4 kg / da nitrogen should be applied with sowing ğinde 20 kg / da 18: 46: 0 with sowing) and the remaining 15 kg / da Nitrogen should be divided into two. 6.5-7 kg / ha nitrogen should be given with the first irrigation (Ammonium Sulphate) and 5-5.5 kg / da Nitrogen (as ammonium nitrate or urea) should be given with the second irrigation.

Phosphorus Fertilization:

The increase in the yield of phosphorous fertilizer to be given with sowing provides peanut. Phosphorus increases fruit formation in peanuts and reduces empty capsule rate. Promotes nitrogen uptake of the plant. In its absence, leaves and fruits cannot fully develop and remain small. The leaf turns pale bluish color. 20-25 kg per decare. When the 18: 46: 0 fertilizer is applied, the phosphorus requirement of the plant and the part of nitrogen to be given with planting are met.

Potassium Fertilization:

Peanut removes excess K2O from the soil during its growing period. However, there are enough potassium in the territory of Turkey.

Therefore, random potassium fertilizer should not be applied. Excess potassium prevents the intake of Ca and causes the decay of needles entering the soil. Potassium fertilization should be done according to soil and leaf analysis.

All of the calculated potassium should be given with sowing.

Calcium Fertilization (Lime):

Calcium is a very important nutrient for peanuts. Calcium fertilization is absolutely required when the soil pH drops below 5.9. In calcium deficiency, the rate of empty fruit increases and the germination rate of the seed decreases significantly.

Calcium deficiency occurs if the peanuts are sown in the field. Calcium deficiency is not seen in normal soils in our region. Instead, iron deficiency occurs due to excess calcium.

In the absence of calcium, the plant remains stunted, the shape of the leaves at the ends of the branches deforms or spots occur between the leaf veins.

OCTOBER

When the peanut is planted as the main product, the soil temperature should rise above 13-15oC. Germination occurs in 15 days at 13-14 ° C. Generally, between 10 April and 20 May, the main crops are peanut plantations.

2. If it is desired to plant peanuts as a product, sowing should be completed as soon as possible following the wheat harvest. October must be finalized by 25 June.

Sowing frequency in peanuts; sowing time, the cultivar form and the soil structure varies according to the variety. Light textured beach Soil and main crop sowing in broad-row, 2nd crop sowing and medium-order soils should be made in narrow row sowing.

In our country, semi-slant and slant growth type Virginia peanut varieties are planted. Therefore, the row spacing varies between 70cm and the row ranges between 15-25cm. The amount of seed per decare is 5,5-11,5 kg according to the sowing frequency. ranged between. Sowing depth is 6-9 cm on sandy soils and 5-6 cm on slightly heavy soils.

MAINTENANCE

Peanut is one of the most important maintenance work; hoeing and weed control, throat filling, watering and pesticides.

Hoeing and Weed Control:

Peanut is an anchor plant. Plant growth is accelerated by hoeing. Hoeing is done by hand or tractor. The number varies according to field conditions. Peanut plant on the soil surface is 3-4 leaves in the period when the first hoe is made. Anchors are made. When the needles (ginophores) start to form in the plant, hoeing should be stopped.

Irrigation

Since peanuts are grown on sandy soils, the need for irrigation water is quite high. Peanut 3 needs a lot of water in the development period.

1. Period: Seed germination cycle

2nd Period: Flowering and ginophore formation after sowing

3. Period: Formation of fruits and ripening period

Peanut consumes the most water during the development period in July and August.

First irrigation is very important in peanut farming. Sufficient flowers should be formed in the plant during the first watering period. In addition, the plant should show signs of wilt due to thirst.

The most critical irrigation time for peanuts; ginophore formation and fruit ripening. If irrigation is interrupted during this period, there will be significant reductions in yield.

The most suitable irrigation method for peanuts is sprinkler irrigation. Plants should be saturated with water in the first irrigation. Depending on the air temperature and soil structure, 4-5 irrigation should be done at intervals of 15-17 days.

HARVEST AND DRYING

Peanut varieties cultivated in our country come to harvest maturity in 150-160 days.

“Mey Peel Soy method is used to determine the harvest time correctly in peanuts. According to this method, when the ratio of red-brown peel color is 55-65%, it is time to harvest. Harvesting is done by machine.

When the peanuts are first harvested, the fruits contain high levels of moisture. This should be reduced by 9-10%. Therefore, the harvested product must be dried. In order to keep the peanut intact for a long time, it should contain less than 9% moisture and less than 7% moisture inside.