Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

OLIVE GROWTH Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Although olive can withstand temperatures between -7 ºC and 40 ºC, it is desirable that the temperature be at 15-25 ºC for good growth and fruit formation.

Olive's need for cooling ranges from 600 to 1000 hours. In addition, olives show a good development and need a sufficient temperature sum for normal eye development.

The minimum temperature that olive tree can withstand is -7 C.

When it falls below this temperature, young olive trees and branches of old olive trees are damaged by the cold.

In order to protect trees from cold damage, limited irrigation should be done in autumn and trees should not be given excessive nitrogen fertilizer.

It should be avoided to install olive groves in places where temperatures fall below 0 C before harvest or where there is a risk of frost in March-April.

In order to form the olive tree product, it needs to cool below + 70C in winter.

During the flowering and pollination of trees, hot and drying winds and excessive rain affect the fruit attitude negatively.

The maximum temperature that the olive tree can tolerate under irrigation is 40 ° C.

The annual rainfall demand of olives is 650-800 mm. Irrigations from summer to seasonal rainfall increase olive coarseness and increase oil formation.

In addition, these formation accelerates the development of shoots and fruit eyes that will bear fruit in the following year.

In humid weather, sweating from tree leaves is reduced. In this way, the effect of heat on the plant is reduced.

  However, excessive humidity can create conditions suitable for some diseases.

High humidity at flower time limits fertilization.

While winds blowing in May and early June help fertilize, winds blowing in late winter lead to reduced soil moisture.

OLIVE PLANT NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES, SYMPTOMS, REMOVAL, FERTILIZATION

Olive plant nutrient deficiency, symptoms, removal, fertilization

In case of deficiency, please use one of our products or search for the following.

In order to avoid deficiencies, use regularly as the first leaves are up to the sparrow beak.

Zinc deficiency in olive cultivation

 In olive Zinc deficiency, yellowing, rosette, shrinkage and deformations are seen between the veins in the leaves.

This deficiency can be caused by the lack of zinc in the soil, excessive phosphorus.

It is common in light soils with high pH and easily washed.

For the solution, soil and leaf analyzes should be made and according to the analysis results, fertilizer applications containing zinc or foliar should be applied.

Potassium deficiency in olive cultivation

Potassium deficiency in olives, old leaves, end chloroses and necrosis, yellow leaves are seen at the bottom brown.

Leaves and fruits shrink, the amount of fruit meat and fat is reduced.

  Resistance to water and cold stress is reduced.

Trees are more affected by diseases and pests.

This deficiency may be caused by a lack of potassium in the soil and a low cation exchange capacity in the soil.

Nitrogen deficiency in olive cultivation

In olive, nitrogen jaundice (chlorosis) occurs in some or all of the leaves.

Leaves fall in the middle and lower parts of the trees.

Weakness in shoots, shoot formation and decrease in structure.

 Somak and flower formation is reduced.

Flower and fruit fall, fruit shrinks, the amount of meat and fat in the fruit decreases.

This deficiency; Lack of nitrogen and organic matter in the soil can cause low soil temperature, low phosphorus content, and excessive drought.

Boron deficiency in olive cultivation

In olive, boron deficiency, young leaves, starting from the tip of the leaf-shaped chlorosis and necrosis is seen.

Leaves shrink, spill, rosette, drying at the tip of the shoot, and lateral growth occurs.

Stunted stems and shoots, dry and deciduous, bushy branches are seen.

Deformations of fruits (Monkey-faced fruit) occurs.

Boron deficiency can be caused by insufficient boron in the soil, low pH, excessive lime applications, excessive drought, excessive rainfall.

Easily washed organic matter is often seen in poor soils.

For the solution, soil and leaf analyzes should be made and according to the results of the analysis, fertilizer applications containing boron from soil or leaves should be applied.

If there is not enough moisture, 40-50 liters of water should be given to each tree.

Foliar applications should be performed in cases where the lime in the soil is higher than certain rates, inadequate pH, excessive precipitation and excessive drought, and in cases of acute deficiency that needs urgent correction.

Research has shown that leaf applications are more effective than soil applications.

 Iron deficiency in olive cultivation

In iron deficiency in olives, chlorosis in young leaves (yellowing), leaf veins green, inter-vein discoloration,

In the advanced stage, dehydration of the shoot occurs.

Olive growing

Magnesium deficiency

Magnesium deficiency in olive, starting from the tip or edge of the leaf yellowing, along the middle vein and green parts are seen at the bottom of the leaf.

As the season progresses, yellowing occurs, covering the entire leaf, the appearance of old leaves.

In young shoots, significant defoliation is observed and growth stops in the shoots.

This deficiency can be caused by magnesium deficiency in the soil, excessive potassium and calcium, excessive precipitation.

For the solution, soil and leaf analyzes should be made and according to the results of the analysis, fertilizer applications containing magnesium from soil or leaves should be applied.

Phosphorus deficiency in olive cultivation

Phosphorus deficiency in olive growth slows down, leaves shrink.

Branches between the knuckles shorten, the roots weaken.

Flowering is reduced, flowering is delayed. Therefore, fruit binding is also negatively affected.

The fruit kernel shrinks, the fruits ripen late.

Since the amount of carbohydrate decreases, the development weakens.

As a result, the amount of product is reduced.

It is prevented that the shoots are prickly and intact.

Sensitivity to cold and drought increases.

The quality of the fruits decreases and the fat content falls below normal.

This deficiency can be caused by insufficient organic matter in the soil, cold and humid conditions and acidic soils.

Calcium deficiency in olive cultivation,

susceptibility to cracking and drying of sprouts, spillage on leaves, drying without hardening on the detached leaves and cold on young leaves.

This deficiency can be caused by calcium deficiency in the soil and excess magnesium.

Important note:

Always use Wet spreader glue if your irrigation or spray water has a pH of 8 - 8.5 every time you spray your garden. (Soil and water pH in many regions of our country is up to 8- 8.5 or even up to 9.) All drugs produced are produced according to the pH range of 6-7. Even the best quality medicines lose their effect by up to 30%, from 6 to 15 minutes. Buddha will reduce the effect of your medicine.

For this reason, our advice to your holder, tank or back pump,

TANK RANKING (DO NOT BREAK THE RANKING)

1 PH DECREASING ADHESIVE  It reduces the pH of the spraying water and prevents the deterioration of the drug. Once the medicines are applied to the plant, it allows the drug to spread to the leaf and prevents it from flowing through the leaves.
2 PLANT FOOD Provides smooth and balanced nutrition of the plant. It makes the fruits attractive, bright, colorful, large, durable, hard, heavy, tasty and pleasantly fragrant.
3 INSECTICIDES Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, according to the pest period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
4 FUNGUSİT MUSHROOM (After mixing in a separate containerZarar) Use a medicine against pests at the bottom of the page, depending on the disease period. Pay attention to the duration of harvesting - use of medicines.
5 OTHER Other trace elements recommended by technical staff.  

Try to use all of them as much as possible, reducing costs.

LIME SOLVENT It should be used in calcareous soils at the beginning of the season. Lime wrapped around capillary roots destroys the creamy layer. Soil bound iron, phosphorus and phosphates are released in the soil, the plant uses them. you do not need to use iron and phosphorus fertilizers repeatedly. 1 Kg drip irrigation per hectare
PLANT FOOD First application before flowering,
second application in fruit attitude,
The third application is done 45 days before harvest
Two applications with 300 gr / 100 lt water in all periods required.
200-300 cc
ZINC Apply when eyes explode and flowering is over. The most important time to apply the fruit is collected (before the leaves fall yet) configure. It allows the accumulation of zinc in the eyes of next spring and healthy new shoots. 125-150 cc
DRIP IRRIGATION NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, BALANCED, POTASSIUM It should be used regularly every semester. NPK of the plant must be met 2-3 kg
ORGANIC Organic based drip irrigation and release irrigation fertilizer. Fifteen days apart. One empty, one full watering or split quantities full watering Dönüme
5-7 kg

Foliar fertilizer should be used in every application. Leaf fertilizers prevent plants from getting stressed. It meets the micro element needs of plants. Improves fruit set and quality of fruits.

Olive diseases and pests

Spilocaea Oleaginea Cycloconium
Pseudomonas Savastanoi Pv.
Colletotrichum gloeosporioi- des (Penz.)
Verticillium Dahliae
.
Armillaria
.
.
Pseudomonas syringae
pv.
Calocoris Trivialis
.
Palpita Unionalis
.
Phloeotribus Scarabaeoi- des
Prays
Oleae
.
Parlatoria Oleae
.
Saissetia Olea
.
Agalmatium Flavescens
.
Lasioptera Berlesiana
.
Coenorrhinus Cribripennis
.
Eupyllura Spp.
.
Bactrocera Oleae
.
Pollinia Pollini
.
Philippia Oleae
.

Since olive tree loves the light, especially in the passage areas, the southern sides should be preferred. Foggy foothills and valleys are not suitable for olives. Olives are not grown in places higher than 800 m.

The olive tree is known as the oldest fruit tree in the world. Its homeland is Anatolia. Turkey also has approximately 90 million olive trees. 75% of our olive presence is in barren and rough countryside. Commercial breeding is carried out in the Aegean, Marmara and Mediterranean regions.

The yield per tree is around 9 kg. Although 90% of the olives we produce are black olives, green olive production has been increasing in recent years.

75% of our olive production is oil and 25% is table.

Olive is not very selective, but calcareous-sandy, rich in nutrients, the PH likes 6-8 soils. Ground water should not be closer than 1m. Drainage should be applied with soils close to this level.

The olive tree can grow in loamy, clayey loam, lightly chalky, gravelly and soil rich in nutrients. Growing in heavy clay soils should be avoided. In general, soil pH is desired to be around 6-8.

The soil depth should be at least 1.2 mm to allow the development of the root structure of the olive tree. 1 m above ground water level

Precipitation and Irrigation Olive tree needs about 750-800 mm of precipitation during vegetation period.

24% of this precipitation is in March-April, which is the beginning of vegetation and development period, 6% in May, which is the flowering period, 50% in the period of fruit growth, June-July period and 20% in the period of fruit ripening August. - Used by the tree in September.

Olive trees should be able to find enough water in the soil in these periods for high quality production and well balanced growth. Water that cannot be covered by rainfall should be given to trees in the form of irrigation water.

In recent years, drip irrigation systems have to be used in irrigation because of decreasing water resources due to global warming. With these systems, it is possible to give irrigation water in periods that the plant needs.

In gardens connected to rainfall, the necessary precautions should be taken for the trees to benefit from rain water. Appropriate arrangements should be made to prevent the flow of water from the soil surface.

Until the end of the rainfall period, it is necessary to protect the natural vegetation in the soil and to provide the appropriate pruning system for the soil to rain in the trees.

SOIL PROCESSING IN OLIVE BREEDING:

If the soil tillage is done in a timely and appropriate manner, the aeration of the soil, the protection of rainwater and the increase of biological activities are provided. Soil tillage is sufficient 2-3 times a year in olive groves.

The first soil tillage after the harvest in the soil annealed plow 15 cm depth; the second in the spring with a plow or rake not exceeding 10-12 cm, and the third treatment is done for the correction of the soil and the cleaning of the grass in order to prevent the loss of spilled olives.

IRRIGATION IN OLIVE BREEDING

The annual water requirement of olive is 650-700 mm. Irrigation is needed in places with less rainfall.

It is known that the tree needs the most water in summer and 4-5 irrigation in September increases the amount of the product.

PRUNING IN OLIVE BREEDING

Pruning time should be determined very well. Pruning as late as possible in regions with low rainfall is useful. Pruning should be done in summer in areas with branch cancer.

SHAPE PREPARATION IN OLIVE GROWTH:

In olives, the most suitable shape is the ‘free goble’ system.

Pruning is not possible in the first two years after planting saplings. However, after planting, the top of the seedlings exceeding 1 m in height is shot from 90 cm.

40-90cm. height, 3 main branches leaving different points on a single body is left. The ends of the other branches are either removed or connected by leaning downwards to slow their growth. Also bottom shoots and voracious branches are removed.

Shape of the seedlings should not be rushed, shape 3-4 should be obtained in pruning.

PRODUCT PRUNING IN OLIVE GROWTH:

A light crop pruning should be performed in order to preserve the shape of the tree, to reduce periodicity and to remove unnecessary and damaged branches. As a rule, the product is made at the beginning of the year (March - April).

REALIZATION PREGNANCY IN OLIVE GROWTH:

The disease is applied with the aim of forming new ones by cutting the branches which are affected by the harmful and severe frosts, together with the main branches which are corked due to old age and very distant from the trunk. After pruning, the body and main branches should be calcified to avoid damage from the sun, and a 5% burgundy finder should be applied to the cutting areas.

HARVEST IN OLIVE BREEDING

Harvest is the heaviest process of olive production and is one of the most important factors affecting olive quality. It is necessary to determine the yield time very well. Black brine a harvest of olives to be processed, color, shell to meat is done in the period of black. Oil olives are harvested when there is no green fruit in the tree.

Olive picking time varies according to region and climate. The harvest starts with the collection of olives spilled on the tree bottoms and is collected separately and sent to the plant since they give high acidic oil. Second, green table olives are collected.

Olives in general:

Picking from the ground (applicable to oiled olives, not recommended)

Pole whipping (a very common but undesirable method)

Manual stripping (not suitable))

Manual picking (expensive and special workmanship, especially for table olives)

Mechanical harvesting (a very necessary method to reduce labor costs and reduce labor costs can be applied with growth regulators)

MARKETING:

The two main products obtained from olive cultivation are olive oil and table olives. Olives and olive oil production by-products of pomace, wood, leaves, olive seeds and so on. The importance should not be ignored.

Our country is used in olive industry 85 - 88% of the oil industry, while olive, black and green pickled grain and olive oil as well as in domestic consumption and foreign trade is a very valuable product with high marketing opportunities.

For this reason, we should strive to develop olives by bringing solutions to aquaculture and technological problems.

OLIVE PLANT:

After determining the appropriate terrain, the soil should be deeply cultivated (90-100 cm) and drained. If necessary, surface leveling should also be performed.

If the land slope of the facility is to be established, terracing is performed in order to prevent soil erosion and to benefit sufficiently from rainfall. According to grade:

Back terrace (0-5%); canal terrace (5-15%); terrace (table-pocket), (15% <).

When the soil preparation for olive plant is completed, suitable varieties are; black and green table should be selected depending on the soil and climatic conditions.

When selecting varieties, suitable pollinators should be considered together. Because there are varieties that need self-fertilizing varieties as well as dusting.

In the olive grove plant, one or two aged seedlings should be used in a healthy and proper manner, which is provided by reliable sources.

Planting intervals can be varied between 5x5 m and 10x10 m considering the factors such as variety, climate, soil and seedlings can be planted from the beginning of December to the end of March.

In the olive plant, one of the square, rectangular, triangular or contr (sloping) planting shapes may be preferred.

Planting pits should be opened in dimensions of 80x80 cm, the soil coming out from the top and the soil coming out from the bottom should be placed separately. Top soil and 20-25 kg of well-burned farm manure, 300 g of phosphorus and 750 g of potash should be mixed as pure material.

Seedlings that have been removed from their tubes before they are irrigated by irrigating them are placed in pits prepared with the help of planting board. The pit is filled with the soil coming out from the bottom and its surroundings are pressed. In grafted seedlings, the vaccination point should be 5-10 cm above the soil surface.

Planting should be opened around the seedlings trough the water should be given. If necessary, herek can be planted next to the seedling in the direction of the prevailing wind.

SOME TYPES OF OLIVE:

BIG TOPAK ULAK:

It is also called a pellet vaccine. It is grown in Adana's Tarsus, Seyhan, Hatay's İskenderun, İçel's Anamur, Erdemli and Isparta's Sütçüler districts.

Fruits are large, seeds are small according to the size of fruit and contains 20.2% oil.

As the flesh is soft, care must be taken during harvest and transportation. This variety, which is succulent and delicious, is generally processed and processed as Zeytin Boot Olives ”type as green table.

YELLOW ULAK:

Fruits are of medium size, the seeds are very large and contain 18.8% fat. If the temperature falls to critical level, shoots, twigs and dallets are cracked and fruits are cold due to cold.

In its ecology, it is considered a green and black table to meet the family need.

NEW SAURE:

Fruits and seeds are small and contain 29.2% fat. If the temperature drops to a critical level, the shoot ends dry and damage occurs in the form of crust cracking on thin branches and dallets.

Since it has a high oil content, it is generally considered as oily. It is also used as green and black table to meet family needs.

AYVALIK:

Edremit oil in different regions, Lesbos, Sakran names are also used. Fruits and seeds are medium in size, contain 24.7% fat and are considered to be fatty.

Its oil is golden yellow and contains fruit odor and it ranks first in terms of its aromatic, chemical and sensory properties.

In recent years, when the color of fruit flesh turns pink, it is evaluated as ciz Pink Boot Olives ”type.

”Type.

GEMLIK:

For this kind of Trilye, Curly, Kaplık, Kara is used in names such as. Nearly 80% of the olive saplings produced by public institutions and the private sector in our country are Gemlik olive saplings. Therefore, this kind of olives is found in all regions.

Fruits and seeds are of medium size and contain 29.9% fat. It is considered a black table. Since the fruits are rich in oil, grains other than table quality are considered as oil.