Expert organization in plant nutrition
Expert organization in plant nutrition
Aquaculture Deficiencies Products Pests Diseases Subject

WALNUT GROWING ANNUAL Care Disease Pests Nutritional Deficiency and Plant Nutrition

Although it is not selective in terms of soil, the groundwater level likes loose, filtered, gravelly, alluvial soils that do not exceed 2.5 - 3 m.

High ground water causes the development of walnut tree to be hampered, the leaves between the veins between the light green, the brown color of the veins, the shoot ends dry, the tree causes a few years to dry.

Walnut tree, fruit and timber is very important in terms of. In addition, paint is obtained from green bark and roots.

Walnut fruit is the most vitamin A (30 I-U). The oil content is over 60%.

There are varieties of walnuts suitable for dry and fresh consumption.

Walnut; 800–1800 hours shows the need for cooling. Walnut tree; -25 oC, up to + 38 oC.

PLANTING TECHNIQUES AND MAINTENANCE, GARDENING AND ANNUAL MAINTENANCE WORKS

Since walnuts have a strong root system that goes deep, the depth of soil should be at least 2- 2.5 m and there should be no permeable layers.

There should not be too much alkalinity and salinity problems on the soil of the region where aquaculture will be made.

WALNUT PLANT NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES, SYMPTOMS, REMOVAL AND FERTILIZATION

Walnut production plant nutrient deficiency, symptoms, removal and fertilization

In case of deficiency, please use one of our products or search for the following.

To avoid deficiencies, use regular Plant Nutrients since the first leaves are up to the sparrow beak.

Zinc deficiency in walnut cultivationWalnut chain deficiency

Symptoms of zinc deficiency in walnuts are shrinking, shrunken leaves and rosette formation.

The reason for this measurement is that the lengths of the nodes are considerably shortened.

Leaf edges sometimes become wavy.

Yellow leaf mosaic stains occur between the veins, with the vascular edges of the leaf surface remaining green.

If deficiency is not too severe, yellow mosaic stains occur.

If deficiency is not too severe only affects the leaves, shoot development continues normally.

However, if deficiency is severe, shoot development stops completely.

The number of fruit buds in shoots decreases or disappears completely.

Potassium deficiency in walnut cultivation

Walnut potassium deficiency

Potassium deficiency in walnut causes symptoms that appear with curling of leaves and reddish brown spots.

At the ends of the shoots die, weak flower measurement and fruits are smaller than normal.

Potassium deficiency decreases turgor pressure in walnut and when water stress, plants become loose textured.

Drought and frost resistance weakens.

Similarly, plants are much more sensitive to disease agents and salty soil conditions.

Abnormal developments are seen in plant tissues and cell organelles.

The formation of xylem and phloem tissues in the plant regresses.

Tissue ligninization is reduced.

As a result, the body weakens in potassium deficiency.

  Potassium is a nutrient that affects many quality elements in walnuts.

Thus, the lack of potassium in walnuts leads to various quality deteriorations depending on the characteristics of the plant.

Nitrogen deficiency in Walnut

Nitrogen deficiency in walnut cultivation causes trees not to grow.

Nitrogen deficiency is manifested by the fact that the leaves are light green and yellow.

Shoots are short, weak, thin and irregularly die in shoots in different parts of the tree.

Fruits become small, light colored, thick rind and ripen early.

Nitrogen deficiency affects the vegetative growth of walnut negatively.

Leaf, body system becomes quite weak.

Vegetative development period is shortened, plants become early cases.

Early flowering.

Early aging results from the effect of nitrogen on the synthesis and transport of cytokine.

Cytokinin is a hormone that enables the plant to grow strongly and keep the young period longer.

Reduction of this hormone in nitrogen deficiency causes early aging of the plant, in other words, short vegetative growth period.

Boron deficiency in walnut cultivationWalnut boron deficiency

In boron deficiency in walnuts, the flowers suddenly fade as if they were damaged by the cold and become black brown.

But they do not fall as they stand on the branch for a while.

Although frost damages create the same appearance, flowers affected by frost are immediately shed.

In case of severe deficiency, leaf output is delayed.

Vegetative growth points die, shoots become short, leaves are small and distorted shape.

However, chlorosis is not seen in the leaves. Iron deficiency in walnut cultivation

Walnut iron deficiency

Even the thinnest veins remain green in walnut iron deficiency and the color between these veins turns completely yellow.

In broadleaf plants, the leaves show a green network view on a yellow background.

In cases where deficiency is very severe, the veins also turn yellow.

A very typical feature of iron deficiency is that the younger the leaves, the more severe the symptoms are.

Unlike other nutrient deficiencies, a typical feature of iron deficiency is that the chlorinated leaves remain viable without readily dying.

However, if the deficiency is very, very severe, the leaves may also die.

Magnesium deficiency in walnut cultivation

Walnut magnesium deficiency

It is particularly affected by magnesium deficiency in walnut cultivation.

Chlorosis is seen between the veins of the leaves.

Discoloration spreads on older leaves, starting from leaf edges.

White flesh-colored trees with red colored leaves, yellow flesh-colored varieties with yellow colored leaves appear in the leaves.

Symptoms of magnesium deficiency in plants may vary between plant species.

However, some common characters facilitate the recognition of magnesium deficiency.

Since magnesium ions are mobile in the plant, they are easily transported from the old leaves to the newly formed young leaves.

Therefore, symptoms of magnesium deficiency are first seen in old leaves.

Phosphorus deficiency in walnut cultivation

Phosphorus deficiency in Walnut

Phosphorus deficiency in walnut cultivation slows the growth of the tree.

Leaf system is dark green-looking, leaf stalks and young shoots are purple in color.

In older leaves, it becomes tanned and shed early.

Phosphorus is found in the generative organs of the plant more than other organs.

Phosphorus is also known as an element which is effective on the generative development of the plant.

Generative organs such as flowers, fruits and seeds are most damaged by phosphorus deficiency.

 In the absence of phosphorus, the leaves are usually darker green than usual.

Many single-year plants in the leaves and stems of phosphorus deficiency red, reddish purple color occurs.

The red color is due to increased anthocyanin formation in phosphorus deficiency.

Manganese deficiency in walnut cultivation

Walnut manganese deficiency

The symptoms of manganese deficiency in walnut cultivation are similar to each other.

Slight and moderate deficiency occurs in young leaves, slight discoloration between the veins.

This discoloration is very light, but is visible when the leaf is exposed to light.

If the deficiency is more severe, the discoloration increases and leaves the web appearance.

In the later stage, to cover the surface of the leaf whitish yellow spots.

Symptoms of manganese deficiency are similar to magnesium deficiency.

Yellowing occurs between the veins in the leaves.

However, magnesium deficiency symptoms are first seen in old leaves, manganese deficiency is seen in young leaves.

In dicotyledonous plants, in addition to intravenous chlorosis in manganese deficiency, spots appear as yellow spots on the leaves.

In monocotyledonous plants, greenish gray spots and streaks form in the lower parts of the leaves, especially in oats.

Copper deficiency in walnut cultivationWalnut copper deficiency

Copper deficiency is not good in walnut cultivation. Therefore, deficiency symptoms are seen in newly formed leaves.

Grayish green color, even whitening happens as color changes and fading.

Development weakens.

Walnut trees dry at the end of the branches.

In some cases, before the end of the drying of the leaves, larger than normal leaves are formed.

Of calcium deficiency in Walnut

Calcium deficiency in walnut cultivation The removal of calcium ions from soil solution is carried out by means of root tips.

Therefore, factors such as low temperature, insufficient aeration that prevent the formation of new roots can prevent calcium intake and cause deficiency.

Therefore, it is difficult to reach the fruit by transporting the previously absorbed calcium in the phloem during fruit formation.

If calcium ions are taken from the soil in the fruit death cycle and the fruit does not reach the fruit by xylem, calcium deficiency damages can be seen in the fruits.

In order to prevent the deficiencies of calcium deficiency seen in fruits, the appropriate method is spraying Ca directly to the leaf.

However, this process should be carried out during the growth period of the fruits after fertilization and repeated several times.

In this way, damage to the fruits due to calcium deficiency can be prevented.

Molybdenum deficiency in walnut cultivation

Since molybdenum deficiency prevents nitrate assimilation in walnut cultivation, the manifestations of molybdenum deficiency are similar to the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency.

Old leaves turn yellow. However, unlike nitrogen deficiency, necrosis occurs rapidly on the leaf edges.

 This is due to the accumulation of nitrate. The width of the leaf to the moon decreases and different shaped leaves are formed.

For example, although the middle vein continues to grow, the rest of the leaf does not grow and leaves are formed like elongated flagella.

The recoverable molybdenum content of a normal agricultural soil is about 0.2 ppm on a very rough average.

However, since the molybdenum requirements of the plants are very low, the amount of molybdenum present in most soils is sufficient to meet the requirements of the plants.

Therefore, the lack of molybdenum in plants is not a common situation

Walnut diseases and pests

Armillaria Mellea
Pseudomonas Syringae Pv.
Xanthomonas arboricola
Gnomonia Leptostyla
Agrobacterium Tumefaciens
Archips Rosanus
Zeuzera Pyrina
Hyphantria Cunea
Stephanitis Pyri
Pseudaulacas Pentagona
Palaeolecanium Bituberculatum
Lepidosaphes Ulmi
Malacosoma Neustria
Cydia Pomonella
Walnut gal leaf mite
Green Shell Fly

PRODUCT pruning in walnut growing

Walnut trees are large and form a large crown. However, these trees usually do not want too much pruning.

However, it is useful to remove the dried and intertwined branches and spacing the pruning in such a way that light can easily enter into the tree crown.

Although pruning is generally used as shape pruning in walnuts, the type and amount of pruning may vary depending on the environment and the purpose of growing the trees.

In order to increase the yield in walnut trees, the branches that thicken in the crown should be diluted from the bottom and the branches forming the crown surface should be diluted by pruning from the branch levels of 2-3 years.

When pruning the product, always take care that the thickness of the removed branch is thinner than the left.

Walnut tree has a lifespan of 100-150 years.

The yield per tree is 120 - 150 kg in the gardens which are established according to the technique.

NUT IRRIGATION

Walnut trees have a large leaf surface due to their large structure and widespread branching. For this reason, it is very important to provide sufficient water to the walnuts with high water loss through sweating.

For walnuts, it is very important to meet the water requirement during spring development, fruit growth and internal filling periods. In these periods, dehydration conditions will slow down the growth and development and cause the fruit to not fill them sufficiently, resulting in low quality and yield.

One of the most important points to be considered in irrigation is to ensure that the water reaches the effective root level.

In the first years of walnuts, taking into account the region and water supply status should be done twice a week irrigation.

One of the furrow irrigation, keel, drip and bottom sprinkler irrigation systems may be preferred as irrigation form.

In the irrigation of walnuts, all kinds of water that are not contaminated with harmful factors such as chemical wastes can be used.

WATER REQUIREMENTS BY YEARS

1st year 700 LT, ie 35 LT for each seedling, 20 times irrigation between MAY-SEPTEMBER

2nd year 800 LT, ie 40 LT for each seedling, 20 times irrigation between MAY-SEPTEMBER

3rd year 900 LT, ie 45 LT for each seedling, 20 times of irrigation between MAY-SEPTEMBER

4th year 1,000 LT, ie 50 LT for each seedling, 20 times irrigation between MAY-SEPTEMBER

5th year 1.100 LT, ie 55 LT for each seedling, 20 times irrigation between MAY-SEPTEMBER

6. year 1.200 LT, ie 60 LT per seedling, each irrigation from May to September 20 times irrigation

In the 7th year, 1.300 LT, ie 65 LT for each seedling, 20 times irrigation between MAY-SEPTEMBER

8th year 1,400 LT, ie 70 LT for each seedling, 20 times irrigation between MAY-SEPTEMBER

In the 9th year, 1,500 LT, ie 75 LT for each seedling, 20 irrigation times between MAY-SEPTEMBER

10th year 1.600 LT, ie 80 LT for each seedling, each irrigation from May to September 20 times

10 + years LT, ie every seedling is increased to each seedling LT.

 

 

 

 

HARVEST

Harvesting in walnuts is considered the period during which mature walnuts and green husks ripen. The period in which thick is opened and separated from the hard shell are signs of ripening of the green shell. Signs of maturity of the inner walnut; This is the period when the texture of the package between the inner walnut and the hard shell begins to brown.

Mostly the green shell ripens later than the inner walnut. Harvesting at the time of ripening of the inner walnut will increase the commercial value of the inner walnut due to the light color of the inner walnut during this period.

However, if the grower waits for the ripening time of the harvested green husk, significant quality losses may occur.

The climate can have a significant effect on the harvest time of walnuts.

In regions with cool climates, the ripening time of the inner walnut and the green shell ripening time usually coincide with the same period.

High humidity accelerates the opening of the green peel. An important factor affecting the harvest time is cultivated variety.

For example, varieties such as Chadler and Serr have a light inner color when harvested correctly and at the time.

Harvesting of harvested fruits, separation of green peels and drying of fruits etc. should be as quickly as possible in order to avoid quality losses.

The fruits under the sun, the fruits of the green peel for a long time on the inside color deterioration is seen.

Harvesting Methods Harvesting of walnuts is done by two methods: manual and mechanical.

While the beating Turkey in walnut-shaped pole tree harvesting is done mechanically roads in the leading countries.

Tree harvesting in the form of harvesting in the first year of the next year, especially in the branches to produce significant damage can occur.

Mechanical harvesting; The main branches of the tree or tree trunk with different shakers to shake the fruit and the tree is made in the form of falling to the ground. For this purpose, various shakers (cable shakers-eccentric shakers, Poner moving shakers, pneumatic shakers, etc.) are used.

+ WALNUT HARVEST NUTS SHOULD BE COLLECTED NOT SHOULD BE SHAKED.

+ NUTS MUST BE LEAVED FROM THE GREEN SHELL AND WASHED AFTER COLLECTION.

+ NUTS SHOULD BE MIXED IN THE SHADOW EVERY DAY AFTER WASHING.

+ NUTS SHOULD BE PLACED IN SQUARE SHAPES AFTER DRYING.

+ NUTS BAGS SHOULD BE STORED IN INDOOR AREAS WITH DOORS LOOKING TO THE NORTH.

+ NUTS SHOULD BE WET 1 DAY BEFORE BREAKING, SHOULD BE CONSUMED IN MAXIMUM 60 DAYS AFTER BREAKING

TYPE SELECTION

In walnuts, male and female flowers become mature at different times.

In this case, male and female flowers are also maturing homogam types and varieties, as well as male flowers before maturing and female flowers maturing before there are varieties.

Therefore, when establishing a walnut orchard, either male or female flowers maturing at the same time, or mature male and female flowers from the same period with more than one kind of planting should be preferred.

We should be careful when installing the Garden of Grafted Walnut tree, which will benefit from its fruit for many years and its body at the end of its life.

Otherwise, the damage of an initial mistake will be suffered for many years. It is useful to review the important points that should be considered when setting up a garden: Grafted Walnut seedlings should be dressed in places such as naked, without vegetation (Central Anatolia and Thrace).

In other words, various fruits should be planted in and around grafted walnuts and wind curtains should be made in places with very strong wind.

In this way, the seedlings are protected from cold hard winds in winter and hot and burning winds in summer.

If the dry or irrigated streams in the base areas are very curved and there are obstacles preventing air flow in front of them, the gardens to be established in such places should be shifted from the base to the slopes.

Variety Selection; It is very important in establishing a garden. You may have done everything exactly, but choosing the wrong kind will cost you both time and money. Therefore, when choosing seedlings, you should pay attention that the seedlings are certified and you should trust the seedlings.

Therefore, it is important that the seedlings are certified as well as being suitable for their names.

In addition, it is very important that these seedlings are planted according to the briquettes to be made in addition to selecting the appropriate and certified variety.

If they are not planted according to the dusting varieties, the yield is low.

WARNING! ! !

Sometimes there are those who offer cheap saplings to the market.

In this case, in addition to the examination of the documents should be investigated whether the seedlings are vaccinated. The seedlings that appear to be grafted are unfortunately not understood after years.

If an example is given to the fake sapling; The time of vaccination is drawn with a knife tip in the shell around an eye in the place where the vaccine is to be vaccinated. After a while this wild sapling is cut over the drawn eye.

The following year, this wild eye continuedr seedling image is given. It is difficult to understand whether the seedlings grown in this way and sold for sale are fake or not even under laboratory conditions.

For this reason, it is very important that the place where grafted seedlings are taken is safe. As a result, it should be remembered that the works to be done with the points to be considered in the establishment of the Garden are like a ring of the chain.

In walnut cultivation, the garden is established with grafted saplings. In places where irrigation is not possible, they settle, they are placed in their places in the field and then vaccinated.

Planting intervals should be set to 10X10 m on weak soils and hillsides, and 12-14 m on strong base. Seedlings will be planted in a pit to be opened at 60cm diameter and 60cm depth.

After placing 100-150 grams of super phosphate and potassium sulphate fertilizers in the bottom of the pit, the burned animal manure is mixed into the soil coming out of the pit and the seedlings should be planted in such a way that the vaccination point remains outside and connected to the plant to be planted next to it.

Grafted seedlings begin to yield from the age of 4-5 years. Planting intervals are filled after 10-12 years. During this time, intermediate farming can be done. (sour cherry, hazelnut to appropriate places, one-year plant in the base.) The best understanding of the tree is the culture plant vine.

Watering is done at least once a year in the first planting year and where possible. Deep autumn once in spring, thoracic ground is suitable in spring when the surface is suitable.

Seedlings are pruned over 4-5 eyes in planting. In winter pruning of the first year, the climax is cut from 180 cm. The necks near the top of the peak branch are severed. Picking is done in strong shoots under the first main branch selected. However, picking is not performed on varieties that are fertile with terminal buds such as HARTLEY.

PROFILE OPENING - SOIL ANALYSIS - PIT OPENING

Walnut is not selective in terms of soil requirements. It can grow easily on sandy-gravelly weak soils. Enjoys loose and filtered soils that don't hold much water

PROFILE OPENING

Sometimes the top view of the soil can be misled. For this, in similar parts of the land according to the size of the land one or several 120 cm. depth pit opens.

In this way, the soil depth, the structure of the soil, whether there is a bottom of the kayak and whether the ground water is determined.

Walnuts do not like clay soil. However, if there is sand and gravel on the bottom of the clay, there is no harm.

SOIL ANALYSIS

Every 30 cm from the same pit. A soil sample is also taken. The samples are numbered and placed in separate bags and labeled and sent for analysis.

The analysis examines the following important issues for walnuts:

The pH values ​​of the soil are measured. The ideal of these values ​​is between 6.5-7.5. A low value indicates that the soil is acidic and a high value indicates that the soil is alkaline. Walnut is not damaged by slightly alkaline soils.

It should be known that walnut is sensitive to salty soils.

PIT OPENING

The soil is plowed and raked while the soil is annealed. 8x8 m. The pit locations are marked with the range x distance.

Before the pit is opened, the soil on the surface is peeled off and stacked to one side for planting. At least 60x60 cm. If the upper part of the pit to be opened is clay soil and there is a layer of sand and gravel at the bottom, it is excavated until it is reached. The soil coming out of the pit is scattered to the area where the surface was previously stripped. The optimum spacing for standard planting is 8x8 m. 15 pits can be excavated per acre (Da = 1000 m²).

TYPE DETERMINATION

After determining the elevation (altitude), direction (view) of the place to be established, VARIETY is determined according to the climate data.

PİKETAJ

After determining suitable varieties for the region, according to the number of seedlings available at the hands are made piketaj. The most suitable one is 2 to 7. At least 2 rows per 7 rows or at least 2 kinds of pollinator seedlings are selected for every 7 seedlings. If the number of seedlings is equal, the number of rows can be equal. However, the number of rows or seedlings should not exceed 7 should not be less than 2. In standard planting, the most suitable Range x Distance is 8x8. In this case, 15 saplings can be planted (Da. = 1000 m²).

Note: It has reached 20 years and is 10x10 m.

A. Walnut orchards established with spacing distance; distance between two trees 20 m. It is. This is a very clear distance. There is also a 50% chance of planting more than 5 trees per acre. Due to these two reasons, the distance of 8x8 m. is an important consideration.

FENCE PLANT

In order to plant more saplings in the unit area and get more crops in a short time, the row between 7 m and 3.5 m. can. In this case, 40 saplings are planted. The distance between the rows is determined by the width of the machine which will make the trimming more. In hedge planting, varieties suitable for pruning should be selected.

In planting the fence, the branches that cannot be directed upwards from the branches perpendicular to the space between the rows and the soil and the top branches are cut by a fence-shaped machine.

PLANTING

Planting intervals vary according to ecological and maintenance conditions, but the most ideal planting intervals in walnuts; 12 x 12 m, 10 x 10 m, 10 x 8 m, or 8 x 8 m. The planting of the seedlings begins in the rest period (from the foliage) and continues until the eyes wake up.

Dismantling of seedlings should be done very carefully and care should be taken not to damage the roots. During planting, especially root pruning should be done on seedlings. Planting pits should be opened at least 60-70 cm wide and 80-100 cm deep.

Seedlings should be planted with the vaccine points above the soil and the pits should be filled with top soil in the garden. Immediately after planting saplings should be given water.

After planting, considering the future timber condition, seedlings trunks should be cut about 1 to 1.5 m above the soil surface and crowning pruning should be done. After that, taking into account the prevailing winds in the region, the seedlings should be tied to herek.

In areas with hot and dry summers and low water supply, mulching with weed or cereal stems to prevent water loss after planting is appropriate. Tillage In spring, a deep version is made when the soil pans.

Soil cultivation in this period is very important in terms of aeration of soil as well as weed control.

In summer, tillage can be carried out in terms of weed control. The plow release in autumn is important in terms of rain and snow water penetration and soil retention. Care should be taken not to injure the roots while the soil is being cultivated.

PLANTING TECHNIQUES

The planting range of the walnut can optionally be between 8x8 and 12x12. But; to make the most of the free space; We recommend sewing it as 10x7 as follows. Seedling pits are opened to a depth of at least 60 - 80 cm. As the pit is opened, the top surface soil is collected on one side.

This soil is blended with about 1000-1500 g of powdered organic fertilizer. A portion of this blended mixture is filled into the bottom of the trough. The bottom part of the seedling bag is then cut with a knife like a lid and removed.

The cut-out pouch is placed in the center of the pit and cut again along the bottom with the utility knife. Here, it is important not to damage the roots during the cutting of the sachet and not to distribute the sachet soil.

After the bag is cut, it is filled halfway with the remaining blended soil without removing the bag. The sachet is then slowly withdrawn without distributing the seedling soil. While the pit is still half full, approximately one can of water is supplied. After irrigation, the pit is completely filled with soil.

It should be noted that the surface level of the seedling bag is the same as that of the filled pit. Then a trough with a diameter of about one meter is made and one meter long wind stake is attached to the seedling with elastic band.

The purpose here; to prevent airborne roots of the seedling from the wind.

AFTER HARVEST

In order to minimize quality losses after harvesting, the green peel should be easily separated from the hard peel, ie the fruits should be scorched immediately. In some regions, the covering of the green shell with nylon, thick cloth and sack for softening and easy removal can cause significant quality losses.

In some countries, roasting is done completely mechanically. In terms of market value, you are prompted to come out as a whole.

If the harvested fruit is marketed internally, the walnuts are subjected to crushing process before they are dried. This makes it easier to come out as a whole.

In our country, walnut crushing operations are generally done by women with hammer hitting in places called sergens. After crushing process, walnuts are classified according to their color and subjected to packaging process.

Drying Fruits that will not be considered internal walnuts, that is to be marketed as shells, should be dried immediately after roasting. The drying process is very important for the storage life of walnuts.

For this purpose, the highest moisture content in shelled and walnuts is determined by standards. For example, T.S.E. dried according to FIG. 8% moisture content of crusted walnuts and 5% moisture content are required. In our country, walnuts are usually dried out in the shade.

In some of our regions, under the sun for 7- 10 days drying

T AS is. This leads to various quality losses such as darkening of the inner color.

Therefore, this drying method is wrong. If no further drying is possible, at least drying should be done outside in shade. That is, the fruits should not be dried directly under sunlight. However, drying in the countries that have a say in the world walnut production is done completely by mechanical means.

In mechanical drying processes, fruits are generally kept at 30-35 ° C for 24 hours.

The rise in temperature above 40 ° C is undesirable in terms of internal quality. Storage and Packaging Since walnuts are fruits with high fat content, it is important to store them in proper conditions in terms of fat deterioration in the internal fruit.

Therefore, walnuts can be stored for long periods at low temperatures (0-40 ° C) and in dry conditions. Packaging is a very important step in the marketing of a product.

For this reason, the proper packaging of healthy materials attracts consumers in terms of marketing both shelled and walnuts.

There is a clear difference between the attractiveness of mixed walnuts filled with large sacks and the walnuts packaged in small weights, all of the same color. For example, it is very important for consumers to make and label inner walnuts with vacuum-proof plastic bags.

Harvesting and post-harvest processing is one of the most important issues for producers and therefore for walnut.

PLANT OF PLANTING

JANUARY

- Pruning is carried out considering ecological conditions.

- If farm manure is not given in autumn, it should be given in this month.

- Pesticide should be applied against pests that pass winter in fruit seedlings.

- Planting seedlings.

FEBRUARY

- Soil cultivation starts in favorable weather conditions

- The works that should be done in January are not completed.

MARCH

- Seedlings are planted in high regions.

- Soil tillage is finished.

- Fertilization process is completed.

- Pruning is complete.

- Agricultural struggle continues.

APRIL

- Weed hoe in nurseries.

- In the first week of April, pencil vaccination works are finalized in wild fruit trees and variety changes.

- Soil tillage is finished in orchards.

- Planting scuba seedlings.

MAY

- Seedlings in newly established gardens are watered and weed hoe is made.

- Green shoot pruning is done.

- In the last week of the month, it is mandatory to clean the bastards with voracious branches.

- In fruit trees, agricultural struggle works are continued.

-Tubbing of seedlings is continued.

JUNE

- Weed control continues.

- Irrigation is done according to ecological situation

- Peaches, plums, cherries and summer apples are harvested towards the end of the month.

- Black spot on apples and pears, apple worm, red spider and other pests are continued to fight.

JULY

- We continue to take weed and watering in orchards.

- Fight against apple worms, red spiders, leaf galleries and other pests.

- Irrigate pans, herbs are removed and the eye vaccines are checked.

AUGUST

- Binding process is carried out in order not to break the shoots from the exile vaccines made before.

- If the weather is dry, irrigation is continued.

- Diseases and pests are fight in nurseries and orchards.

SEPTEMBER

- Harvesting starts in various fruit species.

- Agricultural operations are carried out in orchards and nurseries. (In terms of consumer health, medicated struggle on fruit trees should be stopped 21 days before the harvest.)

OCTOBER

- Farm manure is given to the gardens where the harvest is completed.

- The positions of the seedling pits are marked and the pits are opened.

- Spraying and similar methods of control against manas and other subsoil pests are applied in nurseries.

- Dried, diseased seedlings and branches are removed by pruning and destroyed.

NOVEMBER

- Seedling planting starts according to weather conditions (best results are obtained when planting seedlings)

- Seedling pits continue to be opened.

- Dismantling and trenching works are started in nurseries.

- Quarantine controls are carried out in seedling transportation.

- Pruning is done in young orchards.

- Winter pruning begins in places where the winter is warm.

- Sapling planting work is done.

- Farm manure application is continued with tillage.

At the same time, phosphorus and potash fertilizers are introduced.

DECEMBER

- Works related to new gardens will be established.

- Winter pruning is done out of inconvenient situations.

- Seedling planting continues (the best results are obtained in planting seedlings)